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LIBRARY 

Walter E. Fernald 
State School 




%\tf\°> 






STATE OF NEW YORK 

STATE BOARD OF CHARITIES 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE AND ALIEN POOR 




THE BUREAU OF ANALYSIS AND INVESTIGATION 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 



EUGENICS AND SOCIAL WELFARE BULLETIN 

No- VIII 



THE CAPITOL, ALBANY, NEW YORK 

1917 



FOREWORD 



This bulletin is the second contribution of the Bureau of 
Analysis and Investigation to the standardization of mental tests, 
the first bulletin on this subject having appeared in 1915, entitled 
"Eleven Mental Tests Standardized." The twenty-four tests thus 
far described are a part of those used by the Bureau to supplement 
the Binet-Simon Measuring Scale for Intelligence. Bulletin VIII 
was written by investigator Catherine E. Conway who gave the 
tests as follows : 

Cayuga Home for Children, Auburn 51 

Utica Orphan Asylum, Utica 141 

House of the Good Shepherd, Utica 117 

Albany Orphan Asylum, Albany 134 

James Kemble School, Utica 314 



Total 757 

Although the total of children tested is less than for the former 
bulletin, the number of public school children examined to estab- 
lish the norms is greater, 314 as compared with 180. It is of inter- 
est to compare the work of these normal public school children, 
all of whom are at age for their grades, with that of the unselected 
groups in the four orphan asylums. The work herein reported 
occupied ten months in the years 1915-1916. 

This bulletin and its predecessor on mental tests were prepared 
in fulfilment of the rules of the Board which require the Bureau 
of Analysis and Investigation to carry on " Field work through 
special investigators studying the conditions of defectives already 
in institutions and of applicants for admission." 

" Necessary special psychological studies into the mental con- 
ditions of defectives in institutions and schools." 

The results reported in this bulletin, of which a summary 
appears on pages 136-140, should be of value to those engaged 
in child-caring work. 

EGBERT W, HILL, 
Superintendent of State and Alien Poor. 

The Capitol, Albany, N. Y., January 2, 1017. 

[3] 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



The tests page 

1. Knox cube imitation 7 

2. Three number cancellation 21 

3. Recall of objects 31 

4. Grouping of objects 41 

5. Peg design 54 

6. Story reproduction 61 

7. Syllogisms 69 

8. Four detail drawing 75 

9. Three detail drawing 112 

10. Balance nickel 118 

11. Peg board 121 

12. Tower 127 

13. Boat 133 

Summary of the tests 136 

Bibliography 142 

[5] 



ABBREVIATIONS 



A. 0. A Albany Orphan Asylum, Albany, N. Y. 

C. H Cayuga Home for Children, Auburn, N. Y. 

H. G. S House of the Good Shepherd, Utica, N. Y. 

U. 0. A Utica Orphan Asylum, Utica, N. Y. 

P. S James Kemble School, Utica, N. Y. 

S Subject. 

E Examiner. 

Time is given in seconds indicated by" 

The mental ages given were obtained by use of Goddard's, 1911, 

revision of the Binet-Simon Measuring Scale for Intelligence. 
Physical ages are given in Arabic numerals, mental ages in Roman 

numerals. 

[6] 



CHAPTER I 
Knox Cube Imitation 

This test was designed by Dr. Howard Knox, Assistant Surgeon 
of the United States Public Health Service, Ellis Island, N. Y. 

Material. — Four one inch cubes four inches apart fastened to a 
thin board to form a base. One cube for S. and one for E. 

Movements. — Movements are from S.'s left to right. 

Line Tap cubes 

1 1, 2, 3, 4. 

2 1,2,3,4,2. 

3 1, 2, 3, 4, 2, 3. 

4 1,3, 2, 4. 

5 1,3, 4, 2, 3, 1. 

fa 1,3,4,2. 

5^ b 1,3,4,2,3. 

lc 1,3,4,2,3,1. 

Method of Presentation. — E. sits opposite S. and says, "Watch 
me while I tap the cubes, then I want you to tap them in the 
same manner." E. then taps line 1, and S. imitates her; line 2, 
etc. Knox's method of allowing three trials for the first four 
lines and Rye for the fifth was followed although not more than 
one trial was necessary for any except the fifth as is shown in 
table I. The average number of trials for the fifth line ranged 
from two to three. Pintner in his standardization of the Knox 
cube imitation allows only one trial for all lines and says that 
" The drawback of the Knox method seems to lie in the fact that a 
varying number of repetitions of any line will cause an unequal 
practice effect." This is true, but if E. is learning something 
about S. at each trial, which is the aim of the testing, there is 
value in allowing the repetitions. 

For instance twelve out of forty seven-year-old children suc- 
ceeded with the fifth line, but only four did it on the first trial. 
One of two things prevented the other eight from succeeding the 
first time, either they required more practice or the manner of 
presentation was at fault. The latter is as likely to be true as 
the former. Not all children can grasp problems under the same 
conditions, and a uniform speed of presentation may be a good 
speed for one child and a poor opportunity for another. Thus in 
applying the test, it was found that some Ss. could hold the six 

[71 



8 



State Board of ( 'hash les 



mov<* in mind when done in six seconds, while for others this 
time was too slow. The first performance by E. was always done 
in approximately six seconds. If S. indicated in any way that he 
lost moves because of time then the second performance \v;is done 
in a little quicker or slower time according to the requirements of 
S. If he can imitate the movement, that is the essential thing, 
and E. should not defeat him by reason of a speed unsuited to his 
powers of observation. Slight variations in speed affect his suc- 
cess or failure considerably. The main reason why more than one 
trial is desirable on the fifth movement is to allow E. to gauge the 
speed of presentation to S.'s need, in the same way as the stirrup 
of the dynamometer is adjusted to the size of the hand of S. so 
that he can show his best grip. When more than one trial is 
allowed six seconds is a fair time limit for the first trial. 

Had only one trial been allowed in this work the greatest num- 
ber that would have been successful at any age is seven as is 
shown in the following summary. 

Knox Cube Imitation. Fifth Movement. Eirst Trial 



Age 


Number 
tested 


Number 

successful, 

allowing 

five trials 


Number 

successful 

on first 

trial 


7 


40 
40 
40 
40 
39 
37 
38 
40 


12 

19 
21 
22 
23 
25 
27 
28 


4 


8 


2 


9 


5 


10 


6 


11 


2 


12 


5 


13. . . 


7 


14 


6 







Method of scoring. — Each line was numbered and.S. was given 
a plus or minus according to his success or failure. The number 
of trials was also recorded with each line. When S. succeeded 
with the fourth and fifth line he was asked to repeat his perform- 
ance and if he succeeded on the second trial he was scored a suc- 
cess. This was done to avoid chance successes, after it was observed 
that some subjects succeeded on the first but failed on the second 
trial. This failure to repeat a correct performance w r as more 
common on the fifth than on the fourth line. Knox scores a suc- 
cess on the first correct performance, but the continued use of this 
test with various types of subjects confirms the belief that two 




csj 



o 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 9 

correct performance in lines four and five are a safer guide than 
one in judging whether & really gained the idea of a slightly com- 
plex movement, and can hold it in mind. 

Observations. — Subjects tested ranged from the age of six 
years through sixteen. Hence lines 1, 2, 3 were too simple for 
any of the subjects in this study. This leaves only two lines for 
consideration, the fourth and fifth, although the ^Lve lines were 
used in every case. From the beginning it was observed that the 
fifth line was too difficult for the average eleven year child, which 
is the age given by Knox for this line. Accordingly the line was 
broken up into three parts, as is shown under the heading Move- 
ments and when S. failed after the fifth trial, he was given this 
additional chance of learning the line in parts. rTot enough suc- 
ceeded with this additional chance to make it of much statistical 
value, but it seemed of value to E. as giving insight into S. as to 
whether his learning processes were slower or quicker than the 
average and whether he learned from experience and practice. 

Reactions to the test. — Children at all ages show considerable 
interest in the test. When it is applied after the Binet tests, it 
seems like play to them and feeble-minded and young subjects are 
inclined to show a preference for it by requesting to do it over. 
Only young and feeble-minded subjects with mental ages less than 
eight years reversed the order, that is, began at the opposite end 
from which E. began. The sudden increase in difficulty from the 
fourth to the fifth line is thought to have been the cause of so many 
failures with the fifth line. If more lines had been given, as is 
done by Pintner, so as gradually to increase the difficulty, it is 
felt that the results would have been more favorable. Pintner 
savs that " The EL I. J. lines must be discarded at least as tests 
suitable for ages below sixteen years." These lines, while not 
exactly similar, involve six moves as does the Knox fifth or e line. 

Tabulation. — Tables I and II give the ages, number tested, and 
per cent, successful, and the average number of trials of lines 4 
and 5 respectively, of the public school children. Table I proves 
conclusively that line 4 with one trial is a seven year old test and 
that beyond that age it is too simple for the average child. Table 
TI shows that even with five trials, line 5 is barely a thirteen year 
test. If seventy per cent, can be taken as a standard it can be 
called a thirteen year test if three trials are allowed. 



10 



State Board of Charities 



Tables III and IV give the same data for the institution 
children as tables I and II give for the school children, while 
tables V and VI combine the work of all the institution children 
and compare it with that of the public school children. In every 
case the public school children have a higher per cent, of successes 
than the institution children. The eight year old public school 
children do as well with line 4 as the ten and eleven year old insti- 
tution children, and the eleven year old public school children do 
as well with this line as the fourteen year old institution children. 
(See table V). With line 5 (see table VI) there is a marked 
difference in the per cent, successful at each age, which indicates 
that this line is far too difficult for the average institution child. 

Value of the test. — As a special age test line 4 can be con- 
sidered a seven year test. Children younger than seven years do 
it when given more than one trial. Line 5 or e line can possibly 
be called a thirteen year test when more than one trial is allowed, 
but when only one trial is allowed the year at which it belongs 
has not been determined. 

Although this test is called an imitation test, more can be 
learned about S. by its application, than whether he can Imitate 
or not. It is a test of visual and rententive memory, of motor and 
visual coordination, of attention and cooperation. 



TAELE I 

Knox Cube Imitation 

Line 4. Public school children, number tested, number suc- 
cessful, average number of trials and per cent, successful at 
each age. 



Age 


Number 
tested 


Number 
successful 


Average 

number of 

trials 


Per cent, 
successful 


7 

8 


40 
40 
40 
40 
39 
37 
38 
40 


35 
38 
39 
38 
39 
37 
38 
39 


1.343 

1.078 

1.153 

1.105 

1.102 

1.078 

1 

1.078 


87.5 
95 


9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 


97.5 

95 
100 
100 
100 

97.5 







Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 



11 



TABLE II 

Knox Cube Imitation 

Line 5. Public school children, number tested, number suc- 
cessfulj average number of trials and 'per cent, successful at 
each age 



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Number 
tested 


Number 
successful 


Average 

number of 

trials 


Per cent, 
successful 


7 

8 


40 
40 
40 
40 
39 
37 
38 
40 


12 
19 
21 
22 
23 
25 
27 
28 


2.916 
3.105 
2.571 
2.500 
3.304 
2.760 
2.481 
2.750 


30 

47 5 


9 


52 5 


10 

11 

12 

13 


55 
58.9 
67.5 
71 


14 


70 







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CHAPTER II 

TllREE-JSTuMBEB, CANCELLATION 

This test is similar to the cancellation test described in Bulletin 
No. 5 of the State Board of Charities, Bureau of Analysis and 
Investigation, except that three numbers instead of one are crossed 
out. The test was designed to test more prolonged attention and 
concentration than is called for in the one-number test. S. is 
required to hold in mind the three numbers to be crossed out, to 
cross them out and to work as fast as possible. Thus the genuine 
value of the test seems to be what Meumann calls " real capacity 
of observation " and what Chambers calls u quickness of 
perception." 

Material. — A sheet of paper five and one-half by eight and one- 
half inches containing twenty lines of numerals with one letter 
each in ten of the lines. A practice line for demonstration, a 
sharp pointed pencil and a stop watch. 

Method of Presentation. — The test sheet is turned with the 
numeral side down. S. is told that on the paper are a great many 
numbers and that he is to cross out every 3, every 4 and every 
5 on each line. To make the directions clearer, E. crosses out 
the 3s, 4s and 5s on the practice line. After the directions are 
given the test sheet is presented to S. and he is asked to see how 
quickly he can cross out all the 3 s, 4s and 5s. Time is scored 
from the instant the subject places his pencil on the first line. 

Method of Scoring. — Time is recorded in seconds and the 
number of errors is also reported. Since the number of 3s, 4s 
and 5s all together is very near 150, the per cent, correct is 
obtained by subtracting two-thirds the number of errors from 
100. The index of efficiency is computed by dividing the time 
by the per cent, correct. 

Reactions. — Xormal children from the age of seven years and 
upwards proceed with the test without any hesitation, although 
the younger the child the more time is required. The average 
child crosses out each line from left to right, but bright, observing 
children who get the idea of speed, alternate, that is they mark 
out the first line from left to right, the second from right to left, 
and bo on throughout the sheet. A few cross the numbers verti- 
cally. Dull, slow children grow tired in the middle of the perform- 

[211 



22 



State Board of Chabitibs 



ance and are easily distracted. In comparatively few cases did 
S. fail to cross out all three of the numbers. Morons and high 
grade imbeciles can perform the test but with resulting higher, 
that is poorer, index of efficiency and in longer time than normal 
subjects of corresponding ages. The work of defectives is irregular 
and without plan. In a few cases S. failed to comprehend the 
directions and began by marking out every third, fourth and fifth 
number. Low grade inbeciles fail to get the idea of the test. 

Tabulation. — Table I gives the entire distribution of the public 
school cases, including the number of cases at each age, the average 
time in seconds, the average errors and the average index of effi- 
ciency. Table II gives the distribution of the orphan asylum 
cases in the same manner and table III groups all the orphan 
asylum cases together and compares them with the public school 
cases. With the exception of ages 9 and 13, the public school 
children required less time than the institution children and in 
these instances the differences are only 17 and 12 seconds respec- 
tively, and the index of efficiency for both groups is practically 
the same at ages 9 and 13. 

All normal children from the age of seven years and upwards 
can do this test, but this is not true of the institution children 
taken as a group because some of them are retarded and a few 
are feeble-minded. Consequently one or more failures at each 
age up to thirteen years are found in this group as is shown in 
the following summary. 

Number of Failures 



Institution 


Age 


7 


8 


9 


10 


n 


12 


13 


Albany Orphan Asylum, Albany, N. Y 

Cayuga Home for Children, Auburn, N. Y. . . 
House of the Good Shepherd, Utica, N. Y. . . . 
Utica Orphan Asylum, Utica, N. Y 


2 
4 
9 
2 


i 

5 


1 

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1 



The mental ages of those who failed is significant in that they 
show that retarded children with a seven-vear mentality are not 
as likely to succeed with this test as normal seven-year-old children. 
None of those who failed was able to reach a mental age of eight 
years. To demonstrate this point more clearly the mental ages of 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 23 

those who failed are given. Allowance is made for failure at 
seven years, hence mental ages at this age are not given. 

The mental age of the one failure at the age of eight (Cayuga 
Home) is VI. 6 years, hut allowance is made in this case for a 
serious eye defect. The mental ages of the other five failures at 
this age are VI. 8; VII; VII. 2; VII. 4; and VII, 6 respectively. 

The mental ages of the three failures at the age of nine are 
V. 2 ; VI. 6 and VI. 8. 

The mental ages of the two failures at the age of ten are V 
and VII. 6 respectively. 

The mental age of the one failure at the age of eleven is VII. 2. 

The mental age of the one failure at the age of twelve is VII. 8. 

The mental age of the failure at the age of thirteen is VI. 8. 

The score sheet shows such a wide diversity of errors that it 
seems important to consider the matter of errors under a separate 
heading, hence table IV for the public school group and table V 
for the institution group. The tables are divided into two parts. 
Part one gives for each age the number tested, the average errors, 
the average and standard deviation of errors, the minimum 
median, and maximum errors. In part two the errors are divided 
into quartiles, giving the lowest, lower, upper and highest quartiles. 
The tables show that there is a greater deviation in the number 
of errors for the institution group than for the public school 
group at all ages except thirteen. The advantage of part two of 
tables IV and V is that a good, fair, poor and very poor per- 
formance for each age can be determined in regard to the errors, 
for instance a seven-year-old child who makes from three to seven 
errors can be considered as doing a good seven-year performance ; 
when from seven to twelve errors are made, a fair performance; 
when from twelve to thirty- two errors are made a poor perform- 
ance; and when 32 or more errors are made a very poor per- 
formance, and so on throughout the table for the various ages. 
With such grouping and subdivisions the matter of individual 
differences can be more closely considered. 

The following schedule is a comparison of the time for one- 
number cancellation with the time for three-number cancella- 
tion. The same cancellation sheet was used in each test. Although 
the figures were obtained from two different groups of normal 
public school children, the subjects were selected on the same 



24 



State Board of ( Ihaeities 



basis so that the figures are comparable. At ages -even, eight and 
twelve it would appear that it requires less than twice as long to 
perform the three-number cancellation as to do the one-number 
cancellation. At age nine, it requires two and a half times as 
long, while at ages ten and eleven it requires almost twice as long 
to perform the three-number test as the one-number test. At no 
age does it require three times as long to perform three-number 
cancellation as to perform one-number cancellation. 

Comparison of the Time for One and Three-Number Cancellation 





Age 


Cancellation of 




Three 
numbers 


One 

number* 


7 


395 
359 
242 
265 
237 
236 


231 


8 


* 


217 


9 


143 


10 


141 


11 


117.9 


12 


96.2 




1 



* Figures obtained from table 32 of Bulletin No. V, State Board of Charities. Eleven menta 
tests standardized. 

Value of the test. — • This test can be applied both to normals 
and to high grade defectives as a gauge of prolonged attention 
and a measurement of speed and accuracy of work. It is more 
complex than one-number cancellation, hence it is of higher 
diagnostic value. High grade imbeciles can perform the one- 
number test, but fail on the three-number test. 

As a three-minute test, it can be placed at the thirteen-year 
level. 

TABLE I 

Three-Dumber Cancellation 

Public School Children. Number Tested, Average Time, Average 

Errors and Average Index of Efficiency at Each Age 



Age 



7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



Number 


Average 


Average 


tested 


time 


errors 


40 


395 


14 


42 


359 


16 


41 


342 


15 


40 


265 


12 


39 


237 


10 


37 


236 


9 


38 


193 


9 


40 


193 


10 



Index of 
efficiency 



4.369 
4.057 
3.876 
2.890 
2.560 
2.516 
2.076 
2.069 



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29 



TABLE IV 

Three-Number Cancellation 

Part 1 

Public School Children. Number Tested, Average Errors; Aver- 
age and Standard Variation; Minimum, Median and Maximum 
Errors 





Number 
tested 


Average 
errors 


Average 
variation 


Standard 
variation 


Errors 


Age 


Minimum 


Median 


Maximum 


7 


40 

42 
41 
40 
39 
37 
38 
40 


14 

16 
15 
12 
10 
9 
9 
10 


10.1 
10.7 
12.8 
8.1 
6.4 
4.8 
6.3 
5.5 


12.9 

18.6 

20 

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10.8 

5.7 
11 

8.4 


1 

1 

1 

2 


10 

12 

9 

9 

8 
8 
7 
7 


51 


8 


111 


9 


86 


10 


56 


11 


66 


12 


23 


13 


67 


14 


51 







Part 2 
Public School Children. Errors by Quartiles 



Age 




Quartiles 




Lowest 


Lower 


Upper 


Highest 


7 

8 


3 

3 
2 
4 
2 
2 
2 
3 


7 
8 
6 
7 
6 
6 
5 
6 


12 
13 
10 
9 
9 
9 
9 
8 


32 

22 


9 

10 


22 

24 


11 


19 


12 

13.. 


17 
14 


14 


15 







30 



State Hoard of Chaeities 



TABLE V 

Three-Number Cancellation 

Part 1 

Institution Children. Number Tested, Average Errors; Average 
and Standard Deviation; Minimum, Median and Maximum 
Errors 





Number 
tested 


Average 
errors 


Average 
variation 


Standard 
variation 


Erroks 


Age 


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Median 


Maximum 


7 


18 
46 
40 
62 
60 
60 
40 
29 
16 
7 


22 

15 

17 

12 

13 

9 

7 

10 

6 

15 


16.4 
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13.7 
9 

8.6 
6.3 
5.6 
8.5 
2.7 
14.4 


22 
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17.9 
12.6 
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12.4 
10 
10 
3.6 
17 


5 

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1 

1 
1 


13 
8 
8 
7 
7 
5 
6 
6 
5 
6 


93 


8 


72 


9 


81 


10 


59 


11 


73 


12 


81 


13 


56 


14 


58 


15 


15 


16 


51 







Part 2 
Institution Children. Errors by Quartiles 



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Highest 


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6 
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2 
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4 


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35 


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15 


8 







CHAPTER III 
Recall of Objects 

The idea of this test was obtained from the Neurological Insti- 
tute test of a similar nature, but the method of presentation and 
of scoring is different. The primary object is to test visual 
memory by using objects. Because of the secondary factors that 
enter into the test, namely attention, time and ability to follow 
directions, it was difficult for slow, linobserving children, especially 
those of the border-line and defective types. 

Material. — Ten small objects familiar to children at all ages 
were used. The objects were supplied by the Mirror Candy Com- 
pany, New York City, and include shoe, dog, hat, cup, car, chair, 
chicken, gun, horse and hatchet. 

Method of Presentation. — The objects are kept out of sight of 
B. usually in an envelope nine and one-half inches long. While S. 
is performing some test that requires two or three minutes, E. 
arranges the objects in the order given above under the envelope 
on one side of the table or desk. When S. is ready for the test, 
E. pushes the group directly in front of S., but still under cover 
of the envelope. Then E. gives the following directions: " I have 
some objects arranged in a row under this envelope. I am going 
to take it away and let you look at them for a short time. (The 
time allowed for exposure is twenty seconds). Be sure you look 
at each one carefully starting with the shoe each time, for I want 
you to give them in the same order as you see them." E. takes 
the envelope away and immediately begins to recite the objects in 
the order S. is supposed to give them. This is to make sure that 
S. will know the name of every object and consumes only about 
seven seconds of the time allowed so that S. has sufficient time 
remaining to go over the objects at least twice for himself. After 
twenty seconds the objects are covered again and S. is asked to 
tell what he saw. 

Method of scoring. — The time, number misplaced, the number 
omitted and the whole number of errors are recorded. A mis- 
placed object is considered half an error, while an omitted object 
is considered a whole error, so that an S. who misplaces two 
objects and omits two has three errors. Until E. knows the order, 
an easy way is to keep a note of the order at hand and when S. 

[311 



32 State Board of Charities 

responds E. can write 1, 2, o, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, instead of spell- 
ing out each object. This requires less time and avoids danger of 
losing any of the objects named. 

Reactions. — Slow, dull children lose the idea of time and often 
do not see more than four or five objects in the time allotted. Such 
children also fail to get the idea that the objects must be named 
in order, in spite of the fact that this is emphasized. Feeble- 
minded subjects often spend time with objects that appeal to them, 
sometimes the dog, chicken and horse, or the gun and hatchet. 
Occasionally a child picks up the cup and pretends to drink out 
of it or grasps the hatchet and goes through the movements of 
chopping. Normal children from the age of seven years encounter 
little difficulty in getting the idea and in following the directions. 

Tabulation. — Table I gives for public school children at each 
age the number tested, the average number of objects misplaced, 
average number omitted, and average number of errors. It shows 
quite conclusively that a nine year old child can remember seven 
objects with only one misplaced and that a twelve year old child 
can remember eight objects with one misplaced. 

Table II shows for each institution what table I shows for the 
public school group. The work of the Albany Orphan Asylum 
children compares more nearly than the others with that of the 
public school group. 

Table III groups the work of all the institutions together and 
compares it w T ith that of the public school children. It shows 
that at age eleven the institution children can remember seven 
objects with one misplaced, wdiile public school children can 
do this at nine years, and at the age of thirteen years the institu- 
tion children can remember eight objects with one misplaced, 
while the public school children can do this at twelve years. 

All the institution children whose results are used in this report 
have been tested also by the Binet tests, hence their average 
auditory memory span for digits can be computed and compared 
with their average visual memory span for objects. Smedley has 
figures for auditory and visual memory span for digits which are 
almost the same as the figures for the institution group. Table 
IV gives the average visual memory span for objects for the public 
school and institution groups; the average auditory memory span 



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Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 33 

for digits for the institution group ; the visual and auditory mem- 
ory span for the Smedley group and the auditory memory span 
for digits for the Jacobs group. At ages seven, eleven and 
thirteen the visual memory span for objects of the institution and 
public school groups is greater than the visual memory span f6r 
digits of the Smedley group. At ages eight, nine, ten and twelve 
the visual memory span for objects is greater for the public school 
group than for the institution group and for the Smedley group 
for digits. At age fourteen the visual memory span for objects is 
less for the public school group than for the institution group, but 
the same as the visual memory span for digits of the Smedley 
group. At ages seven, eight, eleven, thirteen, fourteen and fifteen 
the visual memory span for objects for the institution group is 
greater than the visual memory span for digits for the Smedley 
group, and at ages nine, ten, twelve and sixteen the visual memory 
for objects of the institution group is the same as the visual mem- 
ory span for digits of the Smedley group. The auditory memory 
span for digits of the institution and Smedley groups is the same 
at all ages except fourteen. The auditory memory span for the 
Jacobs group is greater than that of the institution and Smedley 
groups of all ages except fourteen, where the memory span is the 
same for the Jacobs and institution groups and greater than that 
of the Smedley group. 

The fact that subjects are allowed to look at the objects long 
enough to see them two or three times may account for a higher 
visual memory span for objects at some ages than the visual mem- 
ory span for digits according to Smedley. However, the results 
are so nearly alike it would seem that visual memory can be tested 
as well with digits as with objects except that subjects innd the 
objects more interesting and less like school work, hence are likely 
to lose the idea that they are being tested and do better work. 

Tables V and VI give for the public school and the institution 
groups the range of errors at each age. The minimum number 
of objects misplaced for each group is 0, while the minimum 
number omitted ranges from to 1 for the public school group at 
all ages and from to 2 for the institution group at all ages. The 
median of the number misplaced for both groups ranges from 
2 



34 



Statu Hoard of Charities 



to 1. The maximum number misplaced by the public school group 
ranges from 4 to 7, and from 2 to 9 by the institution group. 

Value of the Test. — This is a test of visual memory that can be 
used at all ages from seven years and upwards, but as a test of 
ability to remember eight objects without misplacing any, it must 
be placed at the thirteen year level. 



TABLE I 

Recall of Objects 

Public School Children. Number Tested, Average Number of 
Objects Misplaced, Average Number Omitted and Average 
Number of Errors at Each Age 



Age 


Number 
tested 


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Average 
number 
omitted 


Errors 


7 


40 
42 
41 
40 
39 
37 
38 
40 


2 
2 


4 
3 
3 
3 
3 
2 
2 
3 


4 


8 


4 


9 


4 


10 


4 


11 


3 


12 


3 


13 


3 


14 . 


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Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 



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TABLE V 

Recall of Objects 

Public School Group. Number Tested at Each Age, Average 
Number Misplaced and Omitted, and Minimum, Median and 
Maximum Number Misplaced and Omitted. 





Num- 
ber 
tested 


Average 
Number 


Minimum 


1 Median 


Maximum 


Age 


Mis- 
placed 


Omitted 


Mis- 
placed 


Omitted 


Mis- 
placed 


Omitted 


Mis- 
placed 


Omitted 


7 


40 
■ 42 
41 
40 
39 
37 
38 
40 


2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


4 
3 
3 
3 
3 
2 
2 
3 




1 

1 
1 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 


4 
3 
3 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 


5 
5 
6 
6 
4 
4 
4 
4 


7 


8 


7 


9 


6 


10 


6 


11 


6 


12 


5 


13 


5 


14 


5 







TABLE VI 

Recall of Objects 

Institution Group. Number Tested at Each Age, Average Num- 
ber Misplaced and Omitted, and Minimum, Median and Maxi- 
mum Number Misplaced and Omitted. 





Num- 
ber 
tested 


Average 

Number 


Minimum 


Median 


Maximum 


Age 


Mis- 
placed 


Omitted 


Mis- 
placed 


Omitted 


Mis- 
placed 


Omitted 


Mis- 
placed 


Omitted 


7 


23 

45 
40 
56 
49 
53 
38 
29 
16 
7 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 


4 

4 

4 

4 

3 
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2 
2 
2 
3 




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1 

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3 
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3 
2 
2 
2 
3 


4 
5 
5 
5 
5 
6 
4 
4 
5 
2 


q 


8 


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9 

10 

11 


8 

6 

7 


12 


7 


13 


5 


14 


5 


15 

16 


5 

5 



CHAPTEE IV 

Grouping of Objects 

Material. — The ten small objects used in the recall of objects 
test are used for an association test. This test was first used by 
the Neurological Institute. 

Method of Presentation. — After the recall of objects test, the 
ten objects are uncovered and S. is asked to arrange them in pairs, 
any way he wishes so long as he can account for the grouping after- 
wards. When iS. has finished grouping the objects in pairs he is 
asked to give reasons for his grouping in the following manner: 
" Tell me why you put the shoe and the hat together? " and so on 
until each pairing is accounted for in some manner. 

Method of Scoring. — ■ Each grouping is scored plus or minus 
according to the reasons given. Any reason that is at all sensible 
is scored plus. The objects are numbered as in the recall test so 
that the scoring is something like this: 

1 & 2 + 

3 & 7 — 

4 & 6 +. 

Reactions. — Subjects are allowed absolute freedom in their 
choice of objects for groupings so that plenty of opportunity is 
offered to show individuality and ability to rise to the solution of 
problems without protracted planning. All normal children from 
the age of seven comprehend the directions but it is not until a 
later age that they are able to account for their groupings. 

In giving reasons the following types of responses were noted: 

1. Silence. 

2. rTo reasoning or planning. For example: "Because I 
wanted to," or " Because you said so." Such a response is scored 
minus. 

3. Infantile reasoning. This shows the beginning of observa- 
tion and accounting for things, for example, when the response is 
" Because they are the same size," or " Because they are the same 
color." A response of this kind is also scored minus, but is con- 
sidered an improvement over the first and second type of reaction. 

4. Imaginative, or the introduction of a third element. For 
example, " The hat flew out the car window," as a reason for 
grouping the hat and car together, or "A man takes the gun and 

[41] 



4-2 State Board of Chabities 

hatchet together/ 7 or "A man just got undressed and left his shoe 
by the chair/' as a reason for grouping the chair and shoe together. 
Scored plus. 

5. Adult reasoning. Such as " wearing apparel '' as the reason 
when the shoe and hat are placed together, or " animals ' as a 
reason for grouping the dog and chicken, or " household utensils " 
to account for the cup and chair group, or " weapons ' for the 
guns and hatchet. This best form of response is scored plus. 

A bright eight-year old child had accounted for four groupings 
and had the chicken and car left over. She appeared shy about 
giving a reason for this combination, but when urged said : " The 
chicken and the car won't go, that's the way you spell Chicago." 
This was an unusual response but was in all probability the only 
association she had between those objects at the time. It showed 
an ability to rise to an occasion when urged. 

Tabluation. — 'For the purpose of tabulation all the groupings 
that can be made with the shoe are placed in one line, all the group- 
ings that can be made with the dog (except shoe and dog) are 
placed in the next line and so on until each object has a line, but 
no grouping appears twice in the table of combinations. In paren- 
theses next to each grouping is given the number of groupings made 
that way, and at the end of the line the number of plus and minus 
responses are recorded. Table I gives this for school children at 
each age, and Table II similarly for institution children. Num- 
bers stand for the objects as follows: 

6. Chair 

7. Chicken 

8. Gun 

9. Horse 
10. Hatchet 

From tables I and II the most common grouping made at all ages 
were obtained as follows: 

Common Groupings for Public school Group 

dog and chicken; cup and chair; car and horse; gun and hatchet, 
dog and horse; cup and car; chair and chicken; gun and hatchet, 
dog and horse; cup and chair; car and chicken; gun and hatchet, 
dog and horse; cup and chair; car and chicken; gun and hatchet, 
dog and horse; cup and car; chair and chicken; gun and hatchet, 
dog and horse; cup and car; chair and chicken; gun and gatchet. 
dog and horse; cup and car; chair and chicken; gun and hatchet, 
dog and horse; cup and chair; car and chicjcen; gun and hatchet. 



1. 


Shoe 


2. 


Dog 


3. 


Hat 


4. 


Cup 


5. 


Car 



Age 


i 


7 


Shoe and hat; 


8 


Shoe and hat 


9 


Shoe and hat 


10 


Shoe and hat 


U 


Shoe and hat 


12 


Shoe and hat 


13 


Shoe and hat 


14 


Shoe and hat; 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 43 

Age Common Groupings for Institutions 

7 A. O. A.. . Shoe and chair; gun and hatchet. 
C. PI Gun and hatchet. 

U. 0. A. . . Gun and hatchet. 

8 A. O. A. . . Shoe and hat; gun and hatchet. 
C. H Shoe and cup. 

H. G. A. . Gun and hatchet. 
U. O. A. . . Gun and hatchet. 

9 A. O. A.. . Shoe and hat; dog and horse; car and chair; gun and hatchet. 
C. H Shoe and chicken; cup and car; gun and hatchet. 

H. G. S.. . Shoe and hat; dog and horse; cup and car; chair and chicken; gun 

and hatchet. 
IT. O. A. . . Shoe and hat; car and chair; gun and hatchet. 

10 A. 0. A. . . Shoe and hat; dog and horse; cup and chair; car and chicken; gun 

and hatchet. 
C. H Shoe and hat; dog and horse; cup and chair; car and chicken; gun 

and hatchet. 
H. G. S.. . Shoe and hat; dog and horse; cup and chair; car and chicken; gun 

and hatchet. 
U. O. A.. . Shoe and dog; hat and cup; car and chair; chicken and horse; gun 

and hatchet. 

11 A. 0. A. . . Shoe and hat; dog and horse; cup and chicken; car and chair; gun 

and hatchet. 

C. H Shoe and hat; dog and horse; car and chair; gun and hatchet. 

H. G. S.. . Shoe and hat; dog and horse; cup and chair; car and chicken; gun 

and hatchet. 
U. 0. A.. . Shoe and hat; dog and chicken; cup and chair; gun and hatchet. 

12 A. 0. A.. . Shoe and hat; dog and horse; cup and chicken; car and chair; gun 

and hatchet. 

C. H Shoe and chicken; car and chair; gun and hatchet. 

H. G. S.. . Shoe and hat; dog and chicken; cup and car; chair and horse; gun 

and hatchet. 
U. O. A.. . Shoe and hat; dog and car; cup and chair; chicken and horse; gun 

and hatchet. 

13 A. 0. A. . . Shoe and hat; dog and horse; cup and chair; car and chicken; gun 

and hatchet. 

C. H 

H. G. S.. . Shoe and hat; dog and gun; cup and chicken; car and horse; gun 

and hatchet. 
U. 0. A.. . Shoe and hat; dog and horse; cup and car; gun and hatchet. 

14 A. 0. A.. . Shoe and hat; dog and horse; cup and chair; chair and chicken; gun 

and hatchet. 

C. H 

U. 0. A.. . Not determined. 

15 Not determined. 

This analysis shows that the pair of objects found together at 
all ages in both groups are the gun and hatchet. In the arrange- 



44 State Board of Chajut] 

ment of the other pairs the institution group shows a greater varia- 
tion in its selection, while the public school group shows a stronger 
tendency toward a common grouping. All ages of the latter group 
pair the shoe and hat, while all ages except seven pair the dog 
and horse. Age seven pairs the dog and chick( 3 seven, 

nine, ten and fourteen group the cup and chair, while ages eight, 
eleven, twelve and thirteen group the cup and car. The cup, car, 
chair and chicken are interchanged more often than the shoe, dog, 
hat, gun, horse and hatchet. 

In grouping the objects, subjects had a choice of forty-five pos- 
sible combinations, all of which were used at various ages. There 
were some groupings, however, that were not made by subjects at 
certain ages, as follows : 

Age Made no grouping of 

7 Shoe-hatchet; hat-hatchet; cup-gun; chair-hatchet. 

8 Dog-hatchet; hat-hatchet; cup-gun; cup-hatchet; chair- 

hatchet. 

9 Shoe-gun; hat-hatchet; shoe-hatchet. 

10 Dog-hatchet; chair-gun; shoe-horse; shoe-gun. 

11 Shoe-hatchet; hat-chicken. 

12 Cup-hatchet; hat-horse; cup-gun. • 

13 Shoe-chicken; shoe-hatchet; dog-chair; hat-chicken; hat- 

gun; cup-gun; cup-hatchet; car-hatchet. 

14 Shoe-gun; shoe-hatchet; dog-hat; dog-cup; dog-hatchet; 

cup-horse; dog-gun. 

The most unpopular grouping appears to be the shoe and hatchet. 
Ages seven, nine, eleven and thirteen did not use this grouping at 
all, and of the ages that did use it, age ten was the only one that 
could account for it. Ages eight, ten and fourteen failed to group 
the dog and hatchet together and of the other ages that used this 
grouping only age thirteen was able to account for it. Ages seven, 
eight, twelve and thirteen failed to group the cup and gun together 
and of the ages that used this grouping none was able to account 
for it. Ages eight, twelve and thirteen failed to group the cup and 
hatchet, and of those that used this grouping none was able to 
account for it. All ages except ten used the grouping of the chair 
and gun, but none was able to account for the grouping. 



Performance iSTorms fob Thirteen Tests 45 

Generally speaking, all children from the age of seven years 
and upwards used fair judgment in the grouping, but it was not 
until the age of thirteen that a high percentage was able to give 
satisfactory reasons for the groupings. Table III gives the num- 
ber successful and the number of failures St each age for the 
public school and institution groups, while Table IV gives the 
percentage successful in each group. Table V combines the work 
of all the institutions and compares the percentage successful 
of the institution group with the percentage successful of the 
public school group. Ages nine and eleven of the institution 
group have a higher percentage successful than the corresponding 
ages of the public school group, but it will be noticed that the 
curve of increase in the percentage successful of the public school 
group is more regular than the same curve for the institution 
group. It will also be noticed that the highest percentage success- 
ful in the institution group is 55 per cent, at age of fourteen 
years, as compared with 80.5 per cent., the highest percentage at 
age thirteen of the public school group. The same reason given 
for the failure of the institution group with the story reproduc- 
tion and the syllogisms can be given for their failure with the 
grouping of objects. The test is a thirteen-year test and because 
of this institution children fail, for comparatively few of them 
have more than an eleven-year mentality. 

Value of the test. — As an association test, the objects can be 
used for grouping at the age of seven years, but as an association 
test, combined w T ith the ability to account for the associations, this 
must be considered a thirteen-year test. Good reasons for four 
of the five groups constitute a success. 



46 



State Board of Charities 



TABLE I 

Grouping of Objects 

The Groupings Made by Public School Children at Each Age 

(Numbers are used to designate the objects. In the parenthesis 
following each grouping is stated the number of groupings made 
that way. The plus column shows how many gave acceptable 
reasons for their matings, the minus column indicates the failure 
to account properly for the mating.) 



Age 



8 



10 



11 



Number of times each grouping was made 



1-2 (3) ; 1-3 (9) ; 1-4 (5) ; 1-5 (7) ; 1-6 (4) ; 1-7 (3) ; 1-8 (2) ; 1-9 (2) ; 1-10 (0) 

2-3 (6) ; 2-4 (7) ; 2-5 (2) ; 2-6 (2) ; 2-7 (9) ; 2-8 (1) ; 2-9 (8) ; 2-10 (2) 

3-4 (8) ; 3-5 (2) ; 3-6 (9) ; 3-7 (3) ; 3-8 (2) ; 3-9 (1) ; 3-10 (0) 

4-5 (4); 4-6 (7); 4-7 (4); 4-8 (0); 4-9 (5) ; 4-10 (1) 

5-6 (10); 5-7 (6); 5-8 (5); 5-9 (3); 5-10 (1) 

6-7 (1); 6-8 (4); 6-9 (3); 6-10 (0) 

7-8 (1) ; 7-9 (9) ; 7-10 (4) 

8-9 (4) ; 8-10 (21) 

9-10 (5) 



Total . 



1-2 (9) ; 1-3 (12) ; 1-4 (4) ; 1-5 (2) ; 1-6 (9) ; 1-7 (3) ; 1-8 (1) ; 1-9 (1) ; 1-10 (1) 



2-3 (3) ; 2-4 (4) ; 2-5 (4) ; 2-6 (2) ; 2-7 (3) ; 2-8 (1) ; 2-9 (17) ; 2-10 (0) 

3-4 (8) ; 3-5 (6) ; 3-6 (7) ; 3-7 (3) 3-8 (2) ; 3-9 (1) ; 3-10 (0) 

4-5 (10) ; 4-6 (7) ; 4-7 (3) ; 4-9 (2) ; 4-10 (0) 

5-6 (8); 5-7 (3) ; 5-8 (1); 5-9 (2); 5-10 (4) 

6-7 (6) ; 6-8 (3) ; 6-9 (2) ; 6-10 (0) 

7-8 (5); 7-9 (10) ; 7-10 (6) 

8-9 (1) ; 8-10 (24) 

9-10 (6) 



Total , 



1-2 (9) ; 1-3 (17) ; 1-4 (7) ; 1-5 (1) ; 1-6 (3) ; 1-7 (2) ; 1-8 (0) ; 1-9 (2) ; 1-10 (0) 

2-3 (3) ; 2-4 (2) ; 2-5 (5) ; 2-6 (2) ; 2-7 (5) ; 2-8 (1) ; 2-9 (13) ; 2-10 (1) 

3-4 (3); 3-5 (4); 3-6 (5) ; 3-7 (6) ; 3-8 (2); 3-9 (1) 3-10 (0) 

4-5 (4); 4-6 (15) ; 4-7 (2); 4-8 (1); 4-9 (4); 4-10 (3) 

5-6 (4); 5-7 (11); 5-8 (4); 5-9 (5); 5-10 (4) 

6-7 (2); 6-8 (3); 6-9 (5); 6-10 (1) 

7-8 (2) ; 7-9 (5) ; 7-10 (6) 

8-9 (4) ; 8-10 (24) 

9-10 (2) 



Total . 



1-2(9); 
2-3 (3); 
3-4 (8); 
4-5(6); 



1-3 (9) ; 1-4 (6) ; 1-5 (4) ; 1-6 (6) ; 1-7 (3) ; 1-8 (0) ; 1-9 (0) ; 1-10 (3) 

2-4 (1) ; 2-5 (3) ; 2-6 (1) ; 2-7 (5) ; 2-8 (3) ; 2-9 (15) ; 2-10 (0) 

3-5 (2); 3-6 (10); 3-7 (3); 3-8 (2) ; 3-9 (2) ; 3-10 (1) 

4-6 (8); 4-7 (4); 4-8 (1); 4-9 (4); 4-10 (2) 

5-6 (9) ; 5-7 (9) ; 5-8 (2) ; 5-9 (2) ; 5-10 (3) 

6-7 (3) ; 6-8 (0) ; 6-9 (2) ; 6-10 (1) 

7-8 (6); 7-9 (6); 7-10 (1) 

8-9 (3) ; 8-10 (23) 

9-10 (6) 



Total . 



1-2 (6) ; 1-3 (16) ; 1-4 (5) ; 1-5 (2) ; 1-6 (4) ; 1-7 (2) ; 1-8 (3) ; 1-9 (1) ; 1-10 (0) 

2-3 (3) ; 2-4 (7) ; 2-5 (3) ; 2-6 (2) ; 2-7 (7) ; 2-8 (1) ; 2-9 (7) ; 2-10 (3) 

3-4 (7); 3-5 (6); 3-6 (4); 3-7 (0); 3-8 (1); 3-9 (1); 3-10 (1) 

4-5 (8); 4-6 (3); 4-7 (2); 4-8 (2); 4-9 (4); 4-10 (1) 

5-6 (5); 5-7 (7); 5-8 (1); 5-9 (4); 5-10 (4) 

6-7 (8); 6-8 (6); 6-9 (5); 6-10 (1) 

7-8 (1); 7-9 (10); 7-10 (2) 

8-9 (2); 8-10 (22) 

9-10 (5) 

Total 



Plus 



2 
3 



2 

2 

2 

4 



15 



10 
10 
8 
6 
4 
1 
6 
6 
1 



52 



14 
13 

7 

10 

8 



5 

7 



64 



9 
14 
9 
7 
8 
3 
2 
12 
1 



65 



14 
10 
4 
2 
6 
3 
4 
13 



56 



Minus 



38 
34 
25 
19 
23 

8 
12 
21 

5 



185 



32 

2 

14 

29 

15 

i 9 
h 



158 



27 
19 
14 
19 
20 
11 

8 
21 

2 



141 



31 
17 
19 
18 
17 

3 
11 
14 

5 



135 



25 
23 
16 
18 
15 
17 

9 
11 

5 

139 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 



47 



Table I — Grouping of Objects — Continued 



Age 



12 



13 



14 



Number of times each grouping was made 



1-2 (4); 1-3 (7); 1-4 (6); 1-5 (2); 1-6 (6); 1-7 (6); 1-8 (1); 1-9 (3); 1-10 (2) 

2-3 (5) ; 2-4 (2) ; 2-5 (11 ; 2-6 (2) ; 2-7 (8) ; 2-8 (1) ; 2-9 (131 ; 2-10 (1) 

3-4 (12) ; 3-5 (1) ; 3-6 (7) ; 3-7 (2) ; 3-8 (1) ; 3-9 (0) ; 3-10 (2) 

4-5 (71 ; 4-6 (4) ; 4-7 (1) ; 4-8 (0) ; 4-9 (5) ; 4-10 (0) 

5-6 (9) ; 5-7 (4) ; 5-8 (3) ; 5-9 (5) ; 5-10 (4) 

6-7 (6) ; 6-8 (1) ; 6-9 (1) ; 6-10 (1) 

7-8 (3) ; 7-9 (5) ; 7-10 (1) 

8-9 (4) ; 8-10 (23) 

9-10 (3) 



Total . 



1-2 (5) ; 1-3 (18) ; 1-4 (5) ; 1-5 (2) ; 1-6 (4) ; 1-7 (0) ; 1-8 (1) ; 1-9 (3) ; 1-10 (0) 

2-3 (1) ; 2-4 (2) ; 2-5 (2) ; 2-6 (0) ; 2-7 (8) ; 2-8 (8) ; 2-9 (13) ; 2-10 (1) 

3-4 (2) ; 3-5 (6) ; 3-6 (81 ; 3-7 (0) ; 3-8 (0) ; 3-9 (2) ; 3-10 (1) 

4-5 (7) ; 4-6 (13) ; 4-7 (5) ; 4-8 (0) ; 4-9 (3) ; 4-10 (0) 

5-6 (6) ; 5-7 (4) ; 5-8 (4) ; 5-9 (7) ; 5-10 (0) 

6-7 (1) ; 6-8 (1) ; 6-9 (2) ; 6-10 (2) 

7-8 (2) ; 7-9 (4) ; 7-10 (14) 

8-9 (3) ; 8-10 (19) 

9-10 (1) 



Total . 



1-2 
2-3 
3-4 
4-5 
5-6 
6-7 
7-8 
8-9 



(7) 
(0) 
(5) 
(4) 
(8) 
(1) 
(5) 
(0) 



9-10 (4) 



1-3 (20) ; 1-4 (3) ; 1-5 (2) ; 1-6 (6) ; 1-7 (1) ; 1-8 (0) ; 1-9 (1) ; 1-10 (0) 

2-4 (0) ; 2-5 (2) ; 2-6 (6) ; 2-7 (1) ; 2-8 (6) ; 2-9 (18) ; 2-10 (0) 

3-5 (2) ; 3-6 (6) ; 3-7 (1) ; 3-8 (4) ; 3-9 (1) ; 3-10 (1) 

4-6 (14) ; 4-7 (8) ; 4-8 (3) ; 4-9 (0) ; 4-10 (3) 

5-7 (6) ; 5-8 (2) ; 5-9 (7) ; 5-10 (8) 

6-8 (1) ; 6-9 (3) ; 6-10 (1) 

7-9 (6) ; 7-10 (4) 

8-10 (19) 



Total . 



Plus 



15 

17 
6 
9 

15 
3 
4 

16 



85 



28 
32 
14 
21 
16 

3 
19 
19 

1 



153 



32 
29 
13 
24 
21 

3 
12 
15 

2 



151 



Minus 



22 
16 
19 

8 
10 

6 

5 
11 

3 



100 



10 
3 
5 
7 
5 
3 
1 
3 



37 



8 
4 
7 
8 
10 
3 
3 
4 
2 



49 



TABLE II 

Grouping of Objects 
The Groupings Made by Institution Children at Each Age 



Age 



Institution 



A. O. A 



C. H. 



Number of times each grouping was made 



1-3 (1); 1-6 (2); 1-7 (1); 1-9 (2) ; 1-10 (1) 

2-3 (2) ; 2-7 (2) ; 2-9 (2) 

3-4 (2); 3-5(1); 3-6 (2) 

4-6 (2); 4-8 (2); 4-10 (1) 

5-6 (f) ; 5-7 (2) ; 5-8 (1) ; 5-10 (1) 

6-9(1) 

7-9 (2) 

8-10 (4) 



Total . 



1-2 (1); 1-4 (1); 1-5 (1); 1-6 (1); 1-9 (2); 1- 

2-3 (3) ; 2-5 (1) ; 2-7 (1) ; 2-8 (1) 

3-4 (1); 3-6 (2); 3-7 (1) 

4-5 (1) ; 4-6 (1) ; 4-8 (2) ; 4-10 (1) 

5-6(1); 5-7 (3) 

8 9 (2) 

7-9 (2) 

8-10 (5) 



10(1) 



Total . 



Plus 



2 
1 
3 



2 

1 



Minus 



5 
5 
2 
5 
5 
1 
2 
4 



29 



5 
5 
4 
3 
4 
2 
2 



30 






State Board of Charities 



Table II — Groupings of Objects — Confiiw 



Age 



Institution 



U. O. A. 



A. O. A, 



C. H. 



H.G.S. 



8 



U. O. A 



A. O. A. 



C. H. 



Number of times each grouping was made 



(1) 



1-2 (2) 

3-4 (1); 3-7 

4-6(1) 

5-7(1); 5-9(1) 

6-9(1) 

8-10 (2) 



Total , 



1-2 (2) ; 1-3 (5) ; 1-5 (3) ; 1-6 (1) ; 1-9 (2) . . . 
2-3 (2); 2-4 (2); 2-5 (1); 2-6 (1); 2-7 (2) ; 2- 
3-4 (2) ; 3-6 (1) ; 3-7 (1) ; 3-9 (1) ; 3-5 (2) . . . 
4-5 (2) ; 4-6 (2) ; 4-7 (2) ; 4-9 (2) ; 4-10 (1) . . 

5-6 (1) ; 5-7 (3) ; 5-9 (1) 

6-7 (3) ; 6-8 (2) ; 6-9 (2) 

7-9 (1) ; 7-10 (1) 

8-9 (1) ; 8-10 (10) 

9-10 (1) 



9(2) 



Total . 



1-4 (3); 1-6 (2); 1-7 (1) 

2-3 (3); 2-6 (1); 2-8 (1) ; 2-10 (1) 

3-7 (1); 3-9 (1);3-10 (1) 

4-5 (1) ; 4-7 (1) ; 4-10 (1) 

5-6 (2) ; 5-8 (2) ; 5-9 (1) 

6-7 (1) 

7-9 (2) 

8-9 (2) ; 8-10 (2) 



Total . 



1-2 (1); 1-3 (1); 1-4 (1); 1-7 (1); 1-10 (1), 

2-6 (1) ; 2-7 (2) ; 2-9 (1) 

3-4 (1); 3-5 (1); 3-8 (1); 3-9 (1) . 

4-5 (1); 4-6 (1); 4-10 (1) 

5-6 (1) ; 5-9 (2) . . 

6-7 (1) ; 6-8 (1) 

7-10 (1) 

8-10 (3) 



Total . 



1-2 (5); 1-4 (2); 1-5 (1); 1-6 (4); 1-9 (1) , 

2-3 (1) ; 2-4 (3) ; 2-8 (1) ; 2-10 (3) 

3-4 (4); 3-5 (1); 3-6 (3); 3-7 (2); 3-9 (2), 

4-5 (1) ; 4-6 (2) ; 4-10 (2) 

5-7 (5) ; 5-8 (2) ; 5-9 (2) 

6-7 (3) ; 6-8 (1) . . 

7-8 (1) ; 7-9 (2) . . 

8-9 (3) ; 8-10 (6) . 

9-10 (2) 



Total . 



1-2 (2) ; 1-3 (2) ; 1-4 (2) ; 1-5 (1) ; 1-6 (1) . . 
2-4 (1); 2-5 (1); 2-7 (1); 2-9 (2) ; 2-10 (1) . 

3-4 (2) ; 3-5 (1) ; 3-8 (2) ; 3-9 (1) ,. 

4-6 (2) ; 4-10 (1) . 

5-6 (2) ; 5-7 (2); 5-8 (1) 

6-7 (2) ; 6-10 (1) . 

7-8 (1) ; 7-9 (2) 

8-9 (1) ; 8-10 (3) . 

9-10 (2) 



Total . 



1-6 (1); 1-7 (2) 

2-7(1); 2-9 (1);2-10 (1). 
3-4 (l);3-6 (l);3-9 (1).. 

4-5 (2) 

5-6(1) 

8-9 (1); 8-10 (2) 



Total 



Plus 



6 
6 

2 
2 

1 
2 



20 



1 
2 
3 

1 
1 

1 
1 



10 



5 
4 
4 
2 
2 
2 
1 
3 



23 



2 
1 
2 
1 



9 



Minus 



2 
2 
1 

2 
1 
2 

10 

~7 
4 
5 

7 
4 
5 

2 
10 

1 

45 

6 
6 
3 
3 
5 
1 
2 
4 

30 



5 
2 
4 
2 
2 
2 



20 

12 
6 
9 
4 
8 
3 
2 
9 
2 

55 

3 
2 
2 
1 
3 
1 
2 
1 
2 

17 

1 
2 
1 
1 

1 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 



49 



Table II — Groupings of Objects — Continued 



Age 



Institution 



H. G. S. 



U. O. A 



10 



A. O. A. 



10 



C. H. 



10 



H. G. S. 



10 U. O. A. 



Number of times each grouping was made 



1-3 (2); 1-5 (1); 1-6(1); 1-7(1); 1- 
2-5 (l);2-7 (l);2-8 (l);2-9 (3)... 

3-4 (1); 3-6 (2); 3-8(1) 

4-5 (4); 4-7 (1) 

6-7 (2); 6-9 (1) 

7-9(1) 

8-10 (5) 



■9(1) 



Total . 



1-2 

2-3 

3-4 

4-5 

5 

6 



(3) ; 1-3 (2) ; 1-4 (2) ; 1-5 (1) ; 1-6 (3) ; 1-7 (1) ; 1-9 (2). 

(3); 2-5 (2); 2-7 (2); 2-9 (1) 

(3); 3-6 (4); 3-7 (1) 

(2); 4-6 (l);4-8 (2); 4-9 (2) ; 4-10 (2) 

6 (4) ; 5-7 (3) ; 5-9 (1) 

9 (1) 

7-9 (3) ; 7-10 (2) 

8-9 (3) ; S-10 (8) 

9-10 (1) 



Total . 



1-2 (3) ; 1-3 (6) ; 1-4 (5) ; 1-5 (1) ; 1-7 (1) ; 1-8 (2) 

2-3 (1) ; 2-4 (2) ; 2-5 (1) ; 2-6 (1) ; 2-7 (3) ; 2-8 (2) ; 2-9 (4) ; 

2-10 (1) 

3-4 (3) ; 3-5 (1) ; 3-6 (4) ; 3-8 (1) ; 3-9 (1) ; 3-10 (1) 

4-5 (l);4-6 (3);4-7 (2) ; 4-8 (2) ; 4-9 (1) 

5-6 (4) ; 5-7 (4) ; 5-8 (1) ; 5-9 (4) ; 5-10 (1) 

6-7 (4) ; 6-9 (1) 

7-9 (2) ; 7-10 (2) 

8-9 (1) ; 8-10 (9) 

9-10 (4) 



Total . 



1-2 (1); 1-3 (4); 1-4 (1); 1-6 (2); 1-7 (1) 

2-4 (1) ; 2-5 (2) ; 2-9 (4) ; 2-10 (1) 

3-4 (2); 3-5 (1); 3-6 (1); 3-7 (1) 

4-6 (4) ; 4-7 (1) 

5-6 (2) ; 5-7 (2) ; 5-9 (2) 

7-8 (1) ; 7-9 (2) 

8-9 (1) ; 8-10 (8) 



Total . 



1-2 (3); 1-3 (5); 1-4 (2) ; 1-5 (1); 1-6 (1); 1-8 (1) 
2-3 (1) ; 2-4 (1) ; 2-5 (1) ; 2-6 (1) ; 2-7 (2) ; 2-9 (5) 

3-4 (4) ; 3-6 (1) ; 3-10 (1) 

4-6 (3); 4-7 (2) ; 4-8 (1) 

5-6 (4) ; 5-7 (4) ; 5-8 (1) ; 5-9 (1) ; 5-10 (1) 

6-8 (1) ; 6-9 (1) ; 6-10 (2) 

7-9 (4) 

8-9 (1) ; 8-10 (8) 

9-10 (1) 



Total . 



1-2 (7) ; 1-3 (3) ; 1-5 (2) ; 1-7 (1) 

2-6 (1) ; 2-7 (2) ; 2-8 (1) ; 2-9 (2) 

3-4 (5) ; 3-5 (3) ; 3-7 (2) ; 3-10 (1) 

4-5 (1) ; 4-6 (2) ; 4-7 (1) ; 4-8 (2) ; 4-9 (2) . , 
5-6 (2); 5-7 (1); 5-8 (1); 5-9 (1); 5-10 (2) 

6-7 (1) ; 6-8 (1) ; 6-9 (4) ; 6-10 (1) 

7-9 (4); 7-10 (1) 

8-10 (8) 



Total 



Plus 



2 
3 

i 

i 



i 

2 



11 
5 
5 
6 
1 
1 
3 
1 



40 



4 
5 
1 
2 
3 
2 
3 



20 



2 

'2 

2 



2 

2 
2 



2 

1 



Minus 



4 
3 
4 
4 
2 
1 
4 

22 

13 
6 
8 
9 
8 
1 
4 

11 
1 

61 

11 

4 
6 
4 
8 
4 
3 
7 
3 

50 

~5 
3 
4 
3 
3 
1 
6 

25 

13 
9 
6 
6 
9 
4 
4 
7 
1 

59 

11 
4 
9 
8 
7 
5 
4 
8 

56 



50 



State Board of Charities 



Table II — Groupings of Objects — Continued 



Age 



11 



Institution 



A. O. A.... 



11 C. H. 



11 



H. G.S 



11 



U. O. A, 



12 



A. O. A. 



12 



C.H. 



Number of times each grouping was made 



1-2 (1); 1-3 (8); 1-4 (3); 1-6 (3); 1-7 (3); 1-8 (1) 
2-3 (1); 2-4 (2); 2-5 (1) ; 2-6 (3); 2-7 (5) ; 2-9 (6) 

3-4 (2) ; 3-5 (4) ; 3-6 (3) ; 3-9 (1) 

4-5 (3) ; 4-6 (2) ; 4-7 (4) ; 4-9 (2) ; 4-10 (1) 

5-6 (4) ; 5-7 (2) ; 5-8 (2) ; 5-9 (2) ; 5-10 (1) 

6-7 (1) ; 6-8 (2) ; 6-9 (2) 

7-9 (3) 

8-10 (14) 

9-10 (3) 



Total . 



1-2 (1); 1-3 (2); 1-4 (1); 1-7 (1); 1-10 (1). 

2-6 (2) ; 2-8 (1) ; 2-9 (2) 

3-4 (2) ; 3-6 (1) ; 3-9 (1) 

4-5(1); 4-6(1); 4-8 (1) 

5-6 (2) ; 5-7 (1) ; 5-9 (1) j 5-10 (1) 

6-7 (1) 

7-8 (l);7-9 (1) 

8-10 (1) ; 8-10 (2) 

9-10 (1) 



Total . 



1-2 (2); 1-3 (3); 1-7 (1); 1-8(1). 
2-4 (1) ; 2-7 (2) ; 2-9 (2) ; 2-10 (1) 
3-6 (1) ; 3-7 (2) ; 3-9 (1) ; 3-10 (1) 

4-6 (4); 4-8 (2) ; 4-10 (1) 

5-6 (2); 5-7 (2) ; 5-9 (3); 5-10 (1) 

6-9 (1) 

7-8(1); 7-9 (1) 

8-10 (4) 



Total . 



1-2 (5); 1-3 (3); 1-4 (2); 1-5 (4); 1-7 (1)... 
2-4 (1); 2-7 (2); 2-8 (1); 2-9 (7); 2-10 (1) . . 
3-4 (2); 3-5 (2); 3-6 (4) ; 3-7 (1); 3-8 (1); 3- 

4-5 (2); 4-6 (4); 4-7 (3); 4-9 (1) 

5-6 (3) ; 5-9 (3) ; 5-10 (1) 

6-7 (2) ; 6-8 (1) ; 6-9 (1) ; 6-10 (1) 

7-8 (2) ; 7-9 (2) ; 7-10 (1) . . , 

8-10 (10) 



9 (1) 



Total . 



1-2 (3) ; 1-3 (4) ; 1-4 (2) ; 1-5 (2) ; 1-6 (2) ; 1-7 (4) ; 1-8 (2) ; 

1-9 (3) 

2-4 (1) ; 2-5 (2) ; 2-6 (1) j 2-7 (3) ; 2-8 (1) ; 2-9 (9) ; 2-10 (2). 

3-4 (4) ; 3-5 (5) ; 3-6 (6) ; 3-7 (2) ; 3-8 (1) 

4-5 (5) ; 4-6 (5) ; 4-7 (4) ; 4-9 (1) 

5-6 (3) ; 5-7 (1) ; 5-9 (2) ; 5-10 (2) 

6-7 (4) ; 6-10 (1) 

7-8 (3) ; 7-9 (2) 

8-9 (1) ; 8-10 (14) 

9-10 (3) 



Total . 



1-3 (1); 1-5(1); 1-7 (3).. 
2-3 (1) ; 2-9 (3) ; 2-10 (1) , 

3-4 (3) 

4-5 (1) ; 4-6 (1) 

5-6 (2) ; 5-8 (1) 

(2) 

(1) ; 8-10 (3) . 



6-7 

8-9 



9-10 (1) , 
Total . 



Plus 



10 
15 
5 
7 
7 
3 
1 
5 
1 



54 



3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 



15 



2 
1 

2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 



11 



2 
2 
4 
1 
3 
1 
1 
3 



17 



9 

15 

11 

13 

5 

2 

2 

7 



64 



3 
3 



1 

2 
2 
1 



12 



Minus 



9 
3 
5 
5 
4 
2 
2 
9 
2 

41 

3 
2 
2 
1 
3 

i 

2 



15 

5 
5 
3 
6 
6 

"i 

3 

29 

~13 

10 
7 
9 
4 
4 
4 
7 

58 



13 
4 
7 
2 
3 
3 
3 
8 
3 

46 

2 
2 
3 
1 

1 

3 
1 

13 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 



51 



Table II — Groupings of Objects — Continued 



Age 



12 



Institution 



H. G. S, 



12 



U. O. A. 



13 



A. O. A.. 



13 



C. H. 



13 



H. G. S 



13 



U. O. A. 



14 



A. O. A. 



Number of times each grouping was made 



1-2 (3); 1-3 (2); 1-4 (2); 1-6 (1) 

2-7 (3) ; 2-9 (2) 

3-4 (2) ; 3-5 (1) ; 3-6 (2) ; 3-9 (1) 

4-5 (2) ; 4-6 (2) 

5-7 (4) ; 5-8 (1) 

6-8 (1) ; 6-9 (2) 

7-9 (1) 

8-10 (6) 

9-10 (2) 



Total . 



1-2 (2) ; 1-3 (3) ; 1-4 (2) ; 1-6 (2) ; 1-9 (3) ; 1-10 (1) 

2-3 (1) ; 2-4 (1) ; 2-5 (3) ; 2-6 (1) ; 2-7 (1) ; 2-8 (2) ; 2-9 (2) 

3-4 (2) ; 3-5 (2) ; 3-6 (3) ; 3-7 (3) 

4-6 (4); 4-7 (3) 

5-6 (3) ; 5-8 (1) ; 5-9 (2) ; 5-10 (2) 

7-9 (5) ; 7-10 (1) 

8-9 (1) ; 8-10 (9) 



Total . 



1-2 (3); 1-3 (7); 1-4 (1); 1-5 (2); 1-6 (3); 1-7 (3); 1-9 (1). 

2-3 (1) ; 2-4 (1) ; 2-5 (2) ; 2-7 (3) ; 2-8 (1) ; 2-9 (9) 

3-4 (6) ; 3-5 (3) ; 3-6 (2) ; 3-7 (1) 

4-6 (7); 4-7 (4); 4-9 (1) 

5-6 (4) ; 5-7 (5) ; 5-8 (1) ; 5-9 (2) ; 5-10 (1) 

6-7 (2) ; 6-8 (1) ; 6-10 (1) 

7-9 (2) 

8-9 (2) ; 8-10 (15) 

9-10 (3) 



Total . 



1-5 (1) ; 1-6 (1) 
2-6 (1) ; 2-9 (1) 
3-4(1); 3-8(1) 

4-7 (1) 

5-10 (1) 

7-9(1) 

8-10(1) 



Total . 



(1) 



1-2 (1) ; 1-3 (3) ; 1-6 (2) ; 1-7 

2-5 (1) ; 2-8 (3) ; 2-9 (2) 

3-4 (3); 3-6 (1) 

4-6 (l);4-7 (2); 4-10 (1) 

5-6 (1); 5-7 (2); 5-9 (2); 5-10 (1) 

6-9 (1); 6-10 (1) 

7-9 (2) 

8-10 (4) 



Total 



1-3 (4) 

2-6 (l);2-7 (l);2-9 (2) 
4-5 (2) ; 4-6 (1) ; 4-9 (1) 

5-6 (1) ; 5-7 (2) 

7-9(1) 

8-10 (4) 



Total . 



1-2 (2); 1-3 (7); 1-4 (1); 1-6 (4); 1-10 (1) 
2-4 (1) ; 2-5 (2) ; 2-6 (3) ; 2-7 (2) ; 2-9 (5) . , 
3-4 (2) ; 3-5 (3) ; 3-6 (1) ; 3-8 (1) ; 3-9 (1) . , 

4-5 (1) ; 4-6 (5) ; 4-7 (4) ; 4-9 (1) 

5-6 (2) ; 5-7 (3) ; 5-9 (3) ; 5-10 (1) 

7-8 (2) ; 7-9 (4) 

8-10 (11) 

9-10 (2) 



Total 



Plus 



1 
2 
2 
1 
2 



10 



3 
2 

2 
1 
2 
1 
2 



13 



9 
16 
7 
10 
9 
2 
2 
7 
1 



63 



1 
2 
1 
1 



1 
3 
1 
1 
2 



Minus 



11 
10 
5 
8 
4 
3 
4 



■15 



7 
3 
4 
3 
3 
3 
1 
5 
1 



30 



10 
9 
8 
6 
6 
5 
8 



52 



11 
1 
5 
2 
4 
2 



10 
2 



37 
1 

i 



1 
1 
1 



6 
3 
3 
3 
4 
2 
2 



2 


2 


10 


25 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


2 


1 




2 


2 


10 


10 



4 
3 
3 
3 

5 
3 

7 
2 

30 






ate Board oi vriti 



Table II — Groupings of Objects — < 



Age 



14 



Institution 



B..C - 



14 



U. O. A. 



■-: 



A. C 



15 



U. O. A. 



1: 



A. O. A. 



:■: 



u. 



times each 



«M DM la 



1-2 . 

1) ; 3-€ I 
4-5 OV 4-7(1) 

6-10 (1) 

7-8(1) 

8-9(1) 

9-10 (1) 



T:-:. 



1-3 (5) ; 1-4 (1); 1-6 (l); 1-9 (l) 

—5 (2) ; 2-7 (3) ; 2-9 (2) 

3-5 (1); 3-6(r» 

4-5 (2V 4-6 (3); 4-7 (3) 

5-6 (IV, 5-9 (1); 5-10 (1) 

6-8(1) 

7-9 (2) 

8-9(1); 8-10 (6) 

9-10(1) 



7 : ::.: 



1-3 (2) ; 1-4 (3) ; 1-5 (1) ; 1-6 (2) ; 1-7 (1) ; 1-8 (1) ; 1-10 (1). 

2-3 (4); 2-4 (1); 2-7 (2); 2-S (2); 2-9 (2) 

3-4(1); 3-5 (2); 3-6(2) 

4-5 (IV, 4-6 (l);4-7 (1); 4-9 (2V 4-10 (1) 

5-6 1 S-7 >2); 5-8 (1) ; 5-10 (2) 

6-7 (1); 6-9 (2); 6-10 (1) 

7-8 (1): 7-9 (3) 

8-0 (1); 8-10 (5^ 

9-10 (1) 



T::il. 



1-4(1)-- 

--:• : -• 

---" - 

--:• (i). 



T'-.-.-A 



1-3 (I); 1-6 (1); 1-7 (1); 1-10 (1). 
2-4 (1);2-«(1) ; 2-10(1) 
3-6 (I); 3-9(1) 

1 —7 (2) . 

5-6 (1); 5-7 (1); 5-10 (1) 

7-S 1 

8-9 (2);8-10(l).. 



1:-2l 



1-3 1-8 (1). 

2-6(1); 2-9(1). 

3-4(1) 

4-10 (1) 

5-8 (1); 5-10 (1) 

6-7(1) 

7-9(1) 



Total. 



Plus 



5 

5 

. 
5 

1 
1 
_ 
4 
1 



31 



•i 
3 
- 
3 
3 



li 



3 

3 



3 
2 



14 



" 


6 




3 


- 


3 


4 


2 


4 


3 


1 


3 


4 




- 


4 


1 








I 

1 
1 
1 
1 



- 

2 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1J 



Performance Xorms for Thirteen Tests 



53 



All Groups. 



TABLE III 

Grouping of Objects 
Success and Failure with Reasons at Each Age 



Group Number 


James 
Kemble 
School 


Albany 
Orphan 

Asylum 


Cayuga 
Home for 
Children 


House of 
the Good 

Siieph:;.m> 


Utica 
Orphan 
Asylum 


Age 


+ 




■ 

T 


— 


+ 


— 


+ 


/ 


+ 


— 


7 


15 
52 
64 
65 
56 
85 
153 
151 


185 
158 
141 
135 
139 
100 
37 
49 


6 

20 
23 
40 
54 
64 
63 
45 
31 
17 


29 
45 
17 
50 
41 
46 
37 
30 
24 
3 


5 

'"9 

20 

15 

12 

5 


30 
30 

6 
25 
15 
13 

5 


5 

8 

6 

11 

10 

10 

5 


""20 
22 
59 
29 
30 
25 
5 


' io 
4 
9 

17 
13 
10 
26 


10 


8 


55 


9 


61 


10 


56 


11 


58 


12 


52 


13 

14 


10 
14 


15 

16 


5 
10 







TABLE IV 

Grouping of Objects 
All Groups. Per Cent. Successful with Reaso?is at Each Age 





Per Cent 


Age 


James 

Kemble 

School 


Albany- 
Orphan 
Asylum 


Cayuga 
Home for 
Children 


House of 
the Good 
Shepherd 


Utica 
Orphan 

Asylum 


7 


7.5 
24.7 
31.4 
32.5 
28.7 
45.4 
80.5 
75.5 


17.1 

30.7 

57.5 

44.4 

56.8 

58.1 

57.2 

63 

56.3 

85 


14.2 

60 

44.4 

50 

48 

50 


20 
26.6 
9.2 
27.5 
25 
28.5 
50 




8 


15 3 


9 


6 1 


10 


1 3 


11 


26 1 


12 


20 


13 


50 


14 

15 


65 


16 









TABLE V 

Grouping of Objects 
Comparison of the Public School and Institution Groups as to 

Per Cent. Successful at Each Age 





Ace 


Per Cext 




James 
Kemble 
School 


Institution 


7 


7.5 
24.7 
31.4 

1.7 
45.4 
80 

7:. 




7 8 


8 


10 ."» 


<> 




10 




11 


40 1 


12 


■ 


13 


46 1 


14 




!."» 




10 









CHAPTER V 
Peg Design 

The Bureau of Analysis and Investigation offers the peg design 
as a simple but interesting learning test. Retentive memory is 
also tested by the reproduction of the figure half an hour after 
the first success. 

Material. — The puzzle box known as the " Fox and geese 
board " is used. As purchased in Japanese stores the box meas- 
ures 514 inches square, has a sliding door in one side for placing 
the pegs inside, and on top an inlaid checkered surface of 64 
squares, in the angles of which are bored 33 holes for pegs in the 
form of a Greek cross, each arm of which is 3 holes wide. The 
old form of the puzzle is to place pegs in all the holes except the 
middle one, and then jump off all pegs except one which must be 
in the center. This is too difficult and requires too much time 
to be of practical value as a test (except for scientists and diplo- 
mats), but the last two movements of the solution are used by the 
Bureau as the peg design test. 

(Subject) 



B 



h 6. A .c 



.3 .e .2 



(Examiner) 

[54 1 




IT. 

p 

V 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 55 

Let dots represent the holes in the board. Let A, B, c, d, e, f, 
g, h, represent the position of the pegs on the board. Capital 
letters are the pegs that jump, common letters the pegs that are 
jumped over. Peg A is jumped over by B in the end. After the 
design is set up peg A jumps to hole 1 and peg c is removed, then 
to hole 2 and peg d is removed, then to hole 3 and peg e is 
removed, then to hole 4 and peg f is removed, then to hole 5 and 
peg g is removed, then to hole 6 where it started from and peg h 
is removed. To finish the plan peg B jumps to hole 7 and peg A 
is removed. 

Method of Presentation. — The box is placed, before S. and he 
is told to watch carefully while E. places the pegs on the board 
according to the above arrangement, as he will be asked to arrange 
them in the same manner. Pegs are put on in the order B, h, A, 
c, g, d, f, e. The point of the design B is placed toward S., who 
is told that if the pegs are arranged correctly they can be jumped 
off so that one will be left in the center of the board. Then E. 
starts with peg A, jumps into spaces, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ; takes off 
as he jumps pegs c, d, e, f, g, h; then jumps peg B into hole 7 
the center of the board, and removes peg A. As the directions 
are given while E. demonstrates the movement, they are not diffi- 
cult to follow. S. is warned that he must not only learn to dupli- 
cate the design now, but will be asked after a time to repeat his 
effort. After E. completes the demonstration S. is allowed to try, 
and if he fails to accomplish the work alone, E. assists him up to 
three trials. Then he is allowed to repeat the process for himself 
until he is satisfied that he knows the arrangement. The box is 
then placed out of sight and at the end of thirty minutes it is 
given him again to reproduce the design and jump off the pegs. 
No help is given in this trial. 

Method of Scoring. — The test is divided into two parts. Part 
I is considered the learning process, while part II is considered 
the memory test. In part I time is scored from the time E. begins 
to arrange the pegs the first time until S. gives it up saying that 
he knows the arrangement, and the number of times S. arranges 
it is recorded. In part II the time arranging and the number of 
attempts to arrange pegs are scored. S. succeeds with part I if 
he finally does the design correctly unaided and with part II the 



56 State Board of < : etes 

same. The first is a success in learning, the second in retention 
of what was learned. 

Reactions. — This test is considered difficult for the average 
seven-year old child, although a high percentage of the normal 
public school children succeeded with it as is shown in Table I. 
A difference in the method of learning between the younger and 
older children is noted. The younger children keep repeating the 
design until they are sure they know it, then after the given time 
has elapsed reproduce the design from rote memory; while the 
older children arrange the design only two or three times at the 
most for they see the possibility of reasoning it out. The older 
children are consequently more likely to require two trials in part 
II than the younger ones, but they are quicker to see their mistakes 
and correct them. Defectives of the imbecile type cannot grasp 
the idea of the test. Some morons succeed with it. 

Tabulation. — Table I gives the work of the public school chil- 
dren showing for part I the number tested at each age, the average 
time in seconds, together with the average times arranged; and 
for part II the average time, the average times arranged and the 
number and percentage successful. Table II gives like data for 
the institution children, while Table III combines the work of 
all the institutions. Table III shows that at the ages of 7, 8 and 
9 the average time for learning the design and the average number 
of trials are less for the institution than for the public school 
children of corresponding ages, as tabulated in Table I, but the 
public school children at these ages show a higher percentage suc- 
cessful than do the institution children. The public school group 
shows a gradual decrease in the time for each year from seven 
years, while the institution group shows a greater irregularity in 
the time from one age to another. At all ages, except eight where 
the percentage successful is the same, the public school children 
show a higher percentage successful than do the institution 
children. 

•Since this test is considered as much a learning as a memory 
test, the time learning was worked out in detail. Tables IV and 
V give for both groups and for each age the number tested, the 
average time, the average and standard deviation, and the mini- 
mum, median and maximum time. The average time learning 
for age seven is greater for the public school group than for the 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 



57 



institution group, but the average and standard deviation for the 
latter is greater. From the age of ten and upwards the average 
and standard deviation for the public school group is less than 
for the institution group. ' The minimum, median and maximum 
time gives an idea of the range of the time for each age. The 
minimum time for the public school group is less at all ages 
except eight and nine years. The median shows up in similar 
manner, while the maximum shows a greater variation for both 
groups. 

Value of the Test. — This test is considered a valuable one for 
children at all ages from seven and upwards. It is simple and 
appeals to both boys and girls alike. The instructions are given 
verbally and graphically. Failures with it are thought to be due 
to lack of attention and concentration while the directions are 
being given, or to lack of ability to detect obvious errors. In 
several cases it was felt that the final reproduction and jumping 
of the pegs was a test of the honesty of the subject, especially 
when he was unable to place the pegs correctly but nevertheless 
jumped in such a manner that he finished with one left in the 
center. As a special age test it is placed at the nine-year level. 

TABLE I 

Peg Design 





Part I 


Part II 


Age 


Num- 
ber 
tried 


Average 

time 
seconds 


Average 

times 
arranged 


Average 

time 
seconds 


Average 

times 
arranged 


SUCCESS 




Num- 
ber 


Per 

cent. 


7 


40 

42 
41 
40 
39 
37 
38 
40 


452 
434 
319 
266 
192 
187 
142 
187 


6 
5 
5 
4 
3 
3 
2 
3 


56 
49 
45 
45 
46 
53 
41 
44 


* 


28 
33 
33 
36 
38 
35 
37 
37 


70 


8 


78 6 


9 


80 4 


10 


90 


11 


97 4 


12 


94 3 


13 

14 


97.3 
92 5 







58 



State Board of Cjiaritiks 



i— i 

^ A 



CO 

•2 

J- 



CO 

v. 
co 



CO 

I 

CO 
O 

CO 

CO 

CO 

^~> Cd 
CO CO 



■<s> 



^ 



CO 

CO 

C5i 

s- 

co 
«o 

CO 
CO 

CO 

8 

««. 



CO 

o 

-to 
CO 



CO 
CO 

to 



5~. 

CO <o 

CO £ 



to 

w 

K 

a 

K 

o 

« 
O 
fa 

H 

a 

O 

W 

< 

a 
fc> 
>* 
< 


H 

M 

Eh 

« 
-< 
fa 


Num- 
ber 
suc- 
cessful 


lO ■* CN C5 -1< CO CM • • • 






CO 

< 


lO »C CO CO t>- OS o • • • 
CO iO l>. ■* t}h CO CO • • • 


M 

E- 
P3 
<! 

fa 


— 133 

OJ.Jt 


■* i-O CN t*< iO CN M ■ 


CD 


U)iOOT)iHC5tO • • • 
Tf Tt< CD O) »-h CM <N • • • 
CO •* i-H (M CO rH i-l • ■ • 


Num- 
ber 
tested 


CO iO CO C3 CO •* <M • • • 


< 

to 

< 
W 
fa 
« 
O 

n 

j 


M 

Eh 
(B 

fa 


Num- 
ber 
suc- 
cessful 


•COCO00CC<-HOT-rt<!-HTl< 

•l—l rHHC^HiHH 


csJ'-h 






0) 


t^oqcoo>oococoo>Tt< 

HH/l-<HHlOCO'<*TtlCO"3'OT(( 


w 

Eh 
« 

fa 


CD 
to -3 


Tti-*iO-*rtiCOO?COCOU5 


CD 

ars 

*H F 5 
cd tj 

>'hj 

<1 


0<MCOCMO»0-<*<COCN»0 

O-HNlOrHCOOMCCHO 

CMCOCOCNCOCNINCNt^CO 


Num- 
ber 
tested 


COC0 05X05(NOiOi-HtJ( 
i-H i— 1 i-H CM IN i-H iH 


Age 


















































































^•COOSOt-KMCO'^iOCO 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 



59 





w 

« 


Num- 
ber 

suc- 
cessful 


T-H i-H tH i-l 




O) 

3>3 

o: —3 
t- oj 

S'fi 




s 
p 

< 




0> 

<1 


iOt--COa>COCO»O'*00»O 
COt^tJUO^^COCOCNOO 


« 

o 

o 


K 
•< 

P4 


a) 

03 --* 
(h OS 


t>COiOiOiO^rj<C0C0'<* 




0> 


!>OJOCO-*000'-l<NiO 
OCOfNC-OiOTjHOOiCOi-H 
»0-^<COCOCO<NCN>-I'-HCN 




Num- 
ber 
tested 


COOt}<CO>OCO'<*<OOCN|CO 

TH I— 1 I— 1 1— 1 T-l 






Num- 
ber 
suc- 
cessful 


• 00 <M CO "tf »0 lO i-H • • 


Q 
« 
H 
W 

fc 

H 

a 

Q 
O 

o 

O 


0) 

«H 03 




01 


• Tt< O Hi lO CO O O • • 

• Tfrt •># 00 l> lO ■<* •* • • 


W 

fa 
O 


H 

Eh 

« 


0> 

ej --2 

~ 03 
OJ-7" 


• iO iO •<# t> iO iO CO • • 


H 
as 

O 

W 


STs 


• lO O b- rt< iO >-H> • • 

• co Oi >o cc co <m •* • • 

• CO CO CO ■* CO CO TjH • • 




Num- 
ber 
tested 


• TJH Tj< ^Ht> O N. <N • • 

i— 1 ■ • 


















































































a 




o 




«< 








































































N. 00 9 O — i 71 CO -f< 'O CO 



00 



State Board of Chabities 



TABLE III 
Peg Design 





Institution Group 




PART I 


PART II 


Age 


Num- 
ber 
tested 


Average 
time 


Average 
trials 


Time, 
seconds 


Trials 


Success 




Num- 
ber 


Per. 
cent 


7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 


12 
32 
30 
51 
46 
46 
33 
25 
13 
7 


371 
381 
312 
310 
352 
244 
213 
290 
462 
290 


5 
5 

4 
4 
5 
4 
4 
4 
3 
5 


49 
47 
54 
57 
52 
45 
40 
42 
44 
65 




7 
25 
22 
43 
39 
42 
30 
22 
13 

7 


58.3 

78.1 

73.3 

84.3 

82.9 

91 

90.9 


14 

15 

16 


88 
100 
100 



TABLE IV 

Peg Design 

Public School children, Time Learning, Average Time, Aver- 
age and Standard Deviation, Minimum, Median and Maximum 
Time 



Age 


Num- 
ber 


Average 
time 


Average 
devia- 
tion 


Standard 
devia- 
tion 


Mini- 
mum 
time 


Median 
time 


Maxi- 
mum 
time 


7 


40 
41 
41 
40 
39 
37 
38 
40 


452 
434 
319 
266 
192 
187 
142 
187 


125.9 
164.3 
117.3 
S7.5 
78.4 
55.1 
21.3 
81.1 


143 
179.7 
153.2 
123.8 

97.6 

91 

25.9 
118.8 


146 

183 

150 

78 

83 

101 

94 

69 


432 
352 
298 
241 
182 
172 
136 
148 


709 


8 


736 


9 


.730 


10 


735 


11 


352 


12 


604 


13 


207 


14 


580 







TABLE V 

Peg Design 

Institution Group, Time Learning, Average Time, Average and 
Standard Variation; Minimum, Median and Maximum Time 



Age 



7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 



Num- 
ber 



12 
32 
30 
51 
46 
46 
33 
25 
13 
7 



Average 
time 



370 

380.8 

311.4 

309 

352 

244 

212.6 

290.3 

161.9 

289.9 



Average 
devia- 
tion 



150 

116 

112.5 

126.6 

137.2 
94.8 
77.4 

115.2 
58.9 

172.8 



Standard 
devia- 
tion 



168.9 
143.4 
134.9 
148 
150.8 
124.3 
113.4 
136.9 
68.2 
190.6 



Mini- 


Median 


mum 
time 


time 


149 


268 


167 


333 


140 


285 


130 


264 


128 


280 


118 


194 


108 


191 


115 


198 


76 


133 


125 


178 



Maxi- 
mum 
time 

644 
729 
639 
702 
719 
658 
596 
645 
293 
630 



CHAPTER VI 

Story Reproduction 

A simple story was selected by the Bureau for this test, the 
object being to find at what age children can remember the essen- 
tial points of the story and reproduce a connected narrative. 

Material and Method of Presentation. — S. is told to listen care- 
fully to the story, as he will be asked to tell as much of it as he 
can when E. finishes, but that he will not be expected to repeat 
the exact words. This last statement reassures him if he is 
hesitant. Then E. reads or recites the fable " The Hares and the 
Frogs." Children of nine years old and older usually attempt 
the reproduction, except in the case of feeble-minded and back- 
ward children. 

Fable 

1 — The hares 

2 — were so bothered 

3 — by the other beasts 

4 — they did not know where to go. 

5 — As soon as they saw a single animal approach them, 

6 — off they used to run. 

7 — One day they saw a troup of wild horses running about, 

8 — and in quite a panic, 

9 — all the hares ran off to a lake, 

10 — determined to drown themselves rather than live in such a 

state of fear. 

11 — But just as they got near the bank of the lake, 

12 — a troop of frogs frightened in their turn by the approach of 

the hares 

13 — ran off and jumped into the water. 

14 — " Truly," said one of the hares, " Things are not so bad as 

they seem; 

15 — there is always someone worse off than yourself." 

If S. does not know the meaning of hare he is told before the 
recitation of the fable. 

Method of Scoring. — A copy of the story broken up into 
details as given above is kept before E. and as S. gives his version 
E. marks down the number corresponding to the detail given. A 

[61] 



State Board of Charities 

subject who gi .11 the details is scored: 1, 2, 3, 1. 5, 6, 7. 8, 9, 

10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. When possible the story is taken down 
word for word as S. gives it, but with normal children this is 
often impossible, as they narrate so rapidly. 

The most common scoring for subjects under thirteen years 
was 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. Few gave details 4, 5, 6 and not 
until the age of thirteen or fourteen was the moral, details 14, 15, 
given. 

Reactions. — 1. Silent. Backward seven and eight-year old 
children and some feeble-minded subjects with seven and eight- 
year mentalities listened to the reading of the story with evident 
interest but when asked for their reproduction looked amazed 
and said nothing. 

2. Imaginative. Some seven and eight-year subjects who real- 
ized that they were expected to make some kind of response, used 
as many of the details as they could remember to form a basis for 
a story which they improvised themselves. For instance a seven- 
year old child gave this version : " The hares were going to drown 
themselves and when they got near the lake a big whale came and 
scared them away." Another seven-year old child said: "The 
hares saw some men and horses coming and the hares said: ' We'd 
rather be drowned than get killed by men ! ' Then a lot of frogs 
came and went right down in the water. 7 ' 

3. Confused. Some subjects remembered sufficient details to 
form a storv but from lack of attention and abilitv to reason con- 
fused them in such a manner that there was no sense to their story. 

4. Logical. This type of reaction was made by subjects who 
gave sufficient details consecutively to make a correct version of 
the story. 

The story was too long for the average seven, eight and nine- 
year old children. By the time the last detail was given, what had 
gone before was already forgotten. 

Tabulation. — Nine or more details are considered necessarv to 
give a correct version of the story. Table I gives for each age 
the number of public school children tested, the number who 
responded, the average details, number and percentage successful, 
while Table II gives the same information for each institution. 
Study of the tables shows that comparatively few of the public 



Perform axcz A - :- r - J mi: _ists 63 

school children failed to respond while a large percentage of the 
institution children at each age failed to respond, which indica 
that the public school children in every case made a better effort- 
I ble TTT compares the public school and institution :o number 
tested, number successful and percentage successful. 7 insti- 
tution group makes a poorer showing on thi- test than on any 
other in the series, which may be accounted for in the following 

1. With the other tests S had objects to work with, so that he 
could fumble around until a reasonable solution was arrived at. 
This could not be done with the storv. 

i Wi:h :Vf;:s :: ~::> ~i:li. S. ■rrv-ii ?:l~f lis :::' 
:_i:"_ ;.::.i fr:::\ ::;-_: fzifrifiLOf. :: in ?:nif ;;-fs :~ :ii;.n:e. 

Tbas TfST requires a long concentration on the part of S 
before any response can be given, consequently if his memc 
poor, or if he cannot reproduce details in logical order, he fails 

In other words thi- test requires abstract reasoning, a mental 
process in which most institution children are lacking 

As a special age test, the ability to reproduce this story £ fif- 
teen details falls at the age of thirteen years, and it is partly 
because of this high age limit that the institution groups make 
such a poor showing. Fox of the thirty-four thirteen-year old 
institution childen onlv six have a twelve-^ mentalitv and of 
the twentv-six fourteen-vear old institution children onl 
a twelve-vear mentalitv. hence these children with less than 

« * 

twelve-year mentalities cannot be expected to perform a thirte 

ir te- 

^hte of th T — Since there is - ?h a wide c n,?nce in 
the number and percenta r fnl between the tu g ps 

~:ed, thi- st apj is to be of high diagi - vaho It tt 
decrees of normalitv rather than feeble-mindedness, for not all 
ts who failed are feeble-minded, but are children unable 
to concentrate long enough to remember the del Is .re 

given. ii the other hand if a person can pass this test 
probably not feeble-minded. 



(y\ 



State ,i> of Charito 



TABLE I 

Story Reproduction 

Public School Children, Number Tested, Number Responded, 
Average Number of Details, Number and Percentage Success- 
ful at Each Age 



Ace 


Number 
tested 


Number 
responded 


Average 

details 


Number 
success- 
ful 


Per cent, 
success- 
ful 


7 


40 

42 
41 
40 
39 
37 
33 
40 


38 

41 
40 
40 
39 
37 
38 
40 


2 
2 
5 

7 
8 
9 
10 
9 


1 

7 
16 
21 
27 
35 
30 


2 5 


8. 




9 


17 


10 


40 


11 


53 8 


12 


71 6 


13 


92 1 


14 


75 







Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 



65 



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66 



State Board of Charities 





H 
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Per 

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suc- 

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27.2 
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12.5 
15.3 




Num- 
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suc- 
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CO ■* ii CM 




Aver- 
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details 


oo e» oo <o 
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Num- 
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re- 
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io io o o 

i— i i—i 




Num- 
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tested 


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Num- 
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CO 

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»-< 

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Eh 

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an 
Z 
i— i 


Albany Orphan Asylum, Albany, 
N. Y 

Cayuga Home for Children, Au- 
burn, N. Y 

House of the Good Shepherd, 
Utica, N. Y 

Utica Orphan Asylum, Utica, 
N. Y 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 



67 









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68 



State Board of Charities 



TABLE III 

■Story Reproduction 

Comparison of the Number Tested, Number and Percentage Suc- 
cessful of the School and Institution Children 





Number 


Tested 


Number 
Successful 


Per Cent. 

Successful 


Age 


Public 
school 


Institu- 
tion 


Public 
school 


Institu- 
tion 


Public 
school 


Institu- 
tion 


7 


40 
42 
41 
40 
39 
37 
38 
40 


24 
45 
34 
56 
48 
48 
34 
26 
13 
6 


1 

7 
16 
21 
27 
35 
30 


i 

3 
3 
5 
13 
9 
5 
4 
2 


2.5 

17 

40 

53.8 

72.9 

92.1 

75 




8 


2.2 


9 


8 


10 


5 3 


11 


10 4 


12 


27 


13 


26 4 


14 


19 2 


15 


30.7 


16 


33.3 









CHAPTER VII 



Syllogisms 

To find at what age abstract reasoning may be expected the 
Bureau adopted five syllogisms as a test. It was not expected 
that young children could do much with them, but they were 
given to the young children just the same as to the older ones 
to establish their reaction. 

Material. — The following syllogisms were used : 



Premises given by E. 

1. All new brooms sweep clean. 
This is a new broom. 

2. You must obey your supe- 

riors. 
Mr. B. is your superior. 

(Insert the name of the per- 
son who is the superior of 
S.) 

3. A building where you come 

to learn is called a school. 
You come to this building to 

learn. 
(The testing was done in a 

school building.) 

4. All men have two legs. 
John is a man. 

5. The largest city in any state 

is called the metropolis. 
New York City is the larg- 
est city in New York 
State. 



Answer expected from S. 



This broom sweeps clean. 



I must obey Mr. B. 



This building is a school. 



John has two legs. 



... .i 



]STew York City is the metropo- 
lis of New York State. 



[69] 



To State Hoard of Chaeities 

• 

Method of Presentation: — The first syllogism is given as fol- 
lows: "Supposing I said, 'All new brooms sweep clean!' Then 
if I had a broom beside me and I said, ' This is a new broom/ 
what would you say about this broom? ' Each syllogism is given 
in a similar manner. 

Method of Scoring. — The syllogisms are numbered according to 
the order given above and a plus or minus is marked after each 
number according to the success or failure of S. In some cases 
where S. gives an unusual answer it is written down after the 
number. 

Reactions. — Almost all seven and eight-year-old children made 
no response whatever. At nine years they begin to grasp the idea 
of the syllogisms but it was discovered that abstract reasoning can- 
not be expected of children until they are twelve years old. Some 
subjects made no response whatever, others repeated the last state- 
ment made by E., some formed a question out of their conclusion, 
and some gave incorrect conclusions as " a good broom," " a very 
nice broom," " a very nice broom and does it sweep clean ? ", " a 
good one," to syllogism one ; " my superior," " a good superior," 
and so on to syllogism two ; " this is a nice building and we come 
to learn here" to syllogism three; "John had two arms too," 
" John is a big man and maybe one of his legs is off," " John can 
walk fast," to syllogism four; " a big city," " Xew York is the 
second largest city in the world," and " New York is a fine city," 
as conclusions to syllogism five. 

Tabulation. — Table I gives for the public school children the 
number tested, and the number and percentage successful at each 
age. Table II gives similar data for the institution children. 
The work of the Albany Orphan Asylum children approaches most 
nearly to that of the public school children, but where improve- 
ment is expected from the age of ten years upward, the work of 
these children as of all the other institution children falls behind 
that of normal or public school children. The fifteen-year-old 
Albany Orphan Asylum children do as well as the thirteen-year-old 
public school children. Table III groups the work of all the 
orphan asylum children and compares it with that of the public 
school children. The table shows that the public school group does 
better than the institution group except with syllogism four at the 



Performance Xorms for Thirteen Tests 



71 



age of eight and with syllogism two at the age of nine, but the 
difference is so slight that it is almost negligible. That this test 
is a thirteen-vear-old test accounts for the difference in results in 
the two groups, for the number of institution children with twelve- 
year mentalities is comparatively few, and the test is beyond the 
comprehension of even the average fifteen and sixteen-year old 
institution children. 

Value of the Test. — Like the story reproduction test, the syl- 
logisms are of high diagnostic value. They determine in a wa~ 
the degree of normality, and persons who can form the conclu- 
sions to syllogisms in this test and to others of similar nature are 
not feeble-minded. This test brings out mental alertness and the 
logical ability to separate facts in two statements to form a satis- 
factory third statement. As a special age test, a thirteen-year-old 
child should form correctly the conclusions to four of the five 
syllogisms presented. 

TABLE I 

Syllogisms 

Public School Group. Number Tested, Number and Percentage 

Successful at Each Age 





Num- 
ber 
tested 


Syllogisms 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Age 




Successful 






Num- 
ber 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
cent. 


7 


40 
42 
41 
40 
39 
37 
38 
40 






















8 


2 
8 
15 
24 
28 
31 
31 


4.7 
19.5 
37 . 5 
61.5 
75.6 
81.5 
77 . 5 










1 
11 
23 
29 
31 
34 
34 


2.3 

•26.8 

57.5 

74.3 

S3. 7 
89.4 
85 






9 


3 

7 
16 

21 

2S 
U7 


7.4 
17.5 
41 

.-(>.7 
73 . 6 
67.5 


7 
11 
13 
16 
21 
is 


17 

27.5 

33 . 3 

43.2 

55.2 

45 


3 
10 
14 
19 
31 
30 


7 3 


10 

11 

12 

13 


25 

35.8 

51.3 

81 5 


14 


75 



72 



State Hoard of Charities 



TABLE II 

Syllogisms 

Institution Groups. Number Tested, Number and Percentage 

Successful at Each Age. 





Num- 
ber 
tested 










Syllogisms 












1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Age and 

Institution 






Successful 








Num- 
ber 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber 


Per 

cent. 


7 A. 0. A. . . 


7 
9 
4 
4 

13 

6 
10 
15 

9 

3 

7 

16 

18 
10 
14 
13 

19 
6 
9 

15 

22 
5 
8 

13 

20 
2 

7 
4 

15 
2 
8 

11 
2 

4 
3 


1 


14.2 


















C. H 


















H. G. S. . . 






















U. 0. A. . . 






















8 A. 0. A. . . 


3 


22.2 










2 


15.3 






C. H 














H. G. S. . . 










i 












U. O. A. .. 






















9 A. O. A. . . 


2 


22.2 






1 
2 


11.1 
66.6 


4 
2 


44.4 
66.6 






C. H 


1 


33.3 






H. G. S. . . 


1 
3 

9 
2 
2 

5 

7 
2 
2 

1 

13 
4 
2 
5 

8 


14.2 
18.7 

50- 
20 
14.2 
38.4 

36.8 

33.3 

22.2 

6.6 

59 

80 
25 
38.4 

40 






U. O. A. . . 


3 

2 
1 

2 
2 

3 
1 

1 
1 

9 
1 
2 
6 

9 


18.7 

11.1 
10 

14.2 
15.3 

15.7 

16.6 

11.1 

6.6 

40.9 
20 
25 
46.1 

45 


1 
6 


6.2 
33.3 


1 

9 
3 
2 
2 

9 
4 
3 

4 

15 
3 
3 
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CHAPTER VIII 

Four-Detail Drawing 
In the belief that drawing is a natural means of expressing ideas, 
the Bureau of Analysis and Investigation devised the following 
drawing test, which it is hoped will be a useful supplement to those 
tests in which ideas are expressed verbally, by writing and by 
actually doing things. The story chosen has a situation involving 
action, plenty of human interest and allows freedom of expression. 
It was selected from Book I of the Mother Tongue by Arnold and 
Kittredge, and is entitled: 

Kindness to Animals 

The w^agon w^as heavily loaded with bars of iron. It looked too 
heavy for a single horse to draw. The patient creature had 
strained and tugged, until he succeeded in reaching the top of the 
hill. Now he must back the heavy load in at the open door of the 
barn. 

u Back, Jim ! back ! " said the driver, pulling lightly at the reins. 

The horse braced his fore feet and pushed, but the wagon did not 
move. The man got down from the seat, went to the back of the 
truck and pulled. 

" Back ! " he cried. 

The horse strained every muscle. 

n Back ! " cried the driver again. 

The wagon moved this time at least a foot. Once more the 
driver pulled and the horse pushed, together. 

" Back ! " 

With the last command, the great horse shoved with all his 
might. There was a sound of splintering wood, and the wagon 
rolled back. ISTot a blow had been struck. Only gentle words had 
been spoken, and the horse had done the rest. The man went to 
the horse's head, took his nose in his hands, patted him between 
the eyes, and said : 

" Good old Jim ! you did it, didn't you ? I knew you would." 

The horse rubbed his nose against the man's cheek. 

Material. — Each subject was supplied with oik 1 shed of drawing 
paper 11" by 8 1 //' and a box of crayola containing six colors. 

Method of Presentation. — After the directions were followed 
as to writing the name, age, birth date, grade and date of test, 

[75] 



76 State Board of Charities 

subjects were told to sit in position and listen to the reading of 
the above story. The fact that what they were to do depended 
upon what they remembered of the story was emphasized. After 
the reading of the story, subjects were told to sit quietly and form 
a picture of the story in mind while the following passage was 
being written on the board. (In order to keep the younger chil- 
dren's attention on the story they were told to close their eyes and 
get the picture in mind. ) 

" The patient creature must back the heavy load in at the open 
door of the barn." 

" i Back! Jim! back! ' said the driver." 

The quotation was read to the subjects twice and they were then 
told to illustrate it by drawing, putting in every detail cited in the 
passage. 

Subjects. — The work was carried on in the James Kemble 
school, Utica, from grade 8-a through grade 2-b, where the average 
age of the children is between seven and eight years. Every pupil 
present participated in the work. It was not known when the work 
was begun where the stopping point would be found but it was 
quite a surprise to find that the seven and eight-year-old children 
seemingly grasped the idea and began the work with as few ques- 
tions as the fourteen-year-old children. 

That the story was full of interest is shown by the close atten- 
tion given from the oldest to the youngest child when it was being 
read, and an examination of the papers is a convincing argument 
in favor of the amount of freedom the story allowed. 

It was anticipated that some of the pupils would object to draw- 
ing on the ground that they were unable to draw well. On the con- 
trary, every child in each grade began to work with as much sin- 
cerity and interest as they would on a final examination, with the 
exception of one special class where the pupils are over age for 
their grade and are really misfits in the regular school grades. 
Even this class settled to work after a little explanation. Subjects 
were made to feel that they could have all the time necessary to 
finish the drawing and were allowed entire freedom about using 
the colors. In no case was a subject allowed a second sheet of 
paper, although a second attempt was made by a few on the oppo- 
site side of the paper given them. 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 77 

Method of scoring. — In scoring-, the excellence of the drawing 
as such was not considered, but the work was scored for the ideas 
expressed rather than for artistic ability. Thus any animal that 
was backing was scored as a horse backing, even if he looked like 
anything from a hippopotamus to a French poodle, and whether 
he had two or four legs. In like manner an object or creature 
resembling anything from a giant to a Lilliputian that was saying 
" -Back, Jim ! ' or showed some suggestion of helping the horse 
was scored as the driver, for in everv case what was meant for the 
driver or the horse was quite clear, even though they did not bear 
a close resemblance to the real objects. 

Throughout the two divisions of each grade the test was con- 
ducted by one person who was familiar with all the children ; thus 
the method of presentation was kept uniform and the fact that the 
examiner had come in contact with the children before helped in 
the rating of the papers. 

The first general rating of the papers was made according to the 
number of details expressed and divided into groups so that: 

Group I contains all papers showings a horse backing, the wagon, 
the driver and the open door of the barn. In order to express the 
quotation exactly the drawing must show all of these details. 

tGroup II contains those papers that express all of the above 
details except the open door of the barn, but show from the draw- 
ing that an open door must necessarily be understood. 

Group III contains those papers that express all four details 
cited in group I but failed to show the horse backing. 

Group IV contains any three of the details cited above. 

Group V contains those papers that show three details but are 
expressed in such a way that there is no indication of the subjects 
having grasped the meaning of what was required. 

Group VI contains any two of the details cited above. Almost 
three-fourths of the papers in this group lost the idea of the story 
or of what was expected of them. 

Group VII contains those papers that failed in every way to 
show any details or idea of the story. 

Papers that fall in the first three groups satisfy the requirements 
of the test. 

With this grouping, a general classification of the work accord- 
ing to grades is made in Table I. The distribution is uneven 



/~o 



7S State Board of Charities 

and the gradual decrease in the superiority of the work from the 
highest to the lowest grades is not found here; but the fact is well 
worth noting that the population of this school is composed of a 
more complex mass than is found in the average public school. 
Besides the group of children that comes from the school district, 
and in this group there is always a certain percentage of backward 
and mentally defective children, there are the children from two 
large institutions who compose approximately 20 per cent, of the 
entire school population. More than 50 per cent, of these institu- 
tional children are retarded mentally from one to three years and 
sometimes more, and there are at least from 3 to 4 per cent, actu- 
ally feeble-minded. <Such a group when scattered in the regular 
grades of the school must necessarily lower the standard of the 
grades, and when an advanced grade composed of a large number 
of institutional children is compared with a less advanced grade 
containing a few or none of these children, the lower grade will 
score a larger percentage of successful papers than the advanced 
grade when the same work or material is presented. This is true 
of grade 6-b. In the scoring of success, it has a lower percentage 
than either 5a or 5b. Six-rJ is an exceptionally poor grade. It is 
Icomposed of a large percentage of institutional children together 
with the average repeaters of the public school population. Only a 
small number of the children found here are making the regular 
progress from grade to grade each year, either because of loss of 
time through sickness or because of some inherent mental defect. 
In a measure the irregular curve formed by the percentage suc- 
cessful in Table I, when the work is classified according to grades, 
is due to the mixed population of the school and is an indication 
that this work is not dependent upon school progress as much as 
upon experience. Other tables show that the test is actually a 
fifteen and fourteen-year performance, so that a grade containing 
over-age children other than the over-age feeble-minded childen, is 
very likely to score a larger percentage of successes than a more 
advanced grade composed of children who are in their proper 
grade for their age. 

Table I shows the total number in the grades, the number of 
papers in the divisions of each grade that fall in each group, and 
the percentage successful. The papers in the first three groups 



Performance Xorms for Thirteen Tests 79 

satisfy the demands of the test, and these are scored as successes. 
It will he remembered that the papers in the third group contain 
all four details, that is, the horse, the man, the wagon and the 
open door of the barn, but do not show the horse backing. Since 
only a very small percentage showed the horse backing, and a cor- 
respondingly large percentage got the whole idea of the story except 
that the horse was not backing, it was decided to score as satis- 
factory the papers as far as the fourth group. 

A glance at the table shows that the results of the work in the 
special grades are a part by themselves, and as such do not fit in 
with any of the results in the regular grades. For instance, spe- 
cial grade 1 is composed of those children who according to their 
ages ought to be in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades, but who 
according to mentality fall below any of these grades. Special 
grade 2 contains the over-age children from the fourth and fifth 
grades who because of their age cannot be kept in the second grade. 
Special grade 3 contains the over-age children of the second and 
first grades and those who are definitely feeble-minded. 

Because of the entire freedom allowed, the scoring of judgment 
used by the different individuals is studied in Table II under the 
headings of proportion, choice of colors and neatness. The relation 
of objects to each other is designated as proportion; the selection 
and application of colors are considered under choice of colors; 
and the manner in which the story is expressed, that is, whether 
the objects are clear cut and well defined is studied under neatness. 
To obtain a more exact grading under these topics each group of 
each grade is classified according to excellent, good, fair, poor and 
very poor. Thus under proportion a drawing with all of its objects 
in good proportion is rated as excellent, and the others are rated 
good, fair and so on according to the number of objects in propor- 
tion. For example, some of the papers show a horse and wagon in 
good proportion but with a driver standing beside, the horse who 
is from two to three times as tall as the horse. Others have a good 
horse and wagon being backed into a barn that is not half as large 
as either the horse or wagon. Some show a wagon being bucked 
into a barn, the roof of which is on a level with the wheels or the 
body of the wagon. Others have a huge horse hitched to a wagon 
that looks like a toy wagon in comparison to (lie horse, or just the 



80 State Board of Charities 

opposite, a horse resembling a poodle dog in size hitched to a large 
truck and working with all its might to back it into the barn. The 
rating of the papers according to neatness and choice of colors is 
done in a similar manner. 

Table II combines all the excellent, good, fair, poor and very 
poor papers of all the groups in each grade and it is from this table 
that the graphs are drawn. In the graphs the a and b division 
of each grade are treated as one grade. 

The tables together with the figures illustrate the following 
points : 

1. When grouped according to judgment, the ^seventh grade 
makes a better showing than the eighth grade in each division. 

2. With the exception of the third division, that is, choice of 
colors, the ^fourth grade makes a better showing than the fifth 
grade. 

3. The curve for the second and third grades runs quite smoothly 
toward a general increase in the superiority of the work in the 
third grade. 

4. Under the third division, that is, choice of colors, there is an 
even curve from the second to the seventh grade. 

5. The younger children as one would naturally expect show a 
greater variety in the use of and a more absurd application of the 
colors. 

6. (a) Under proportion the special classes (1) and (2) have no 
excellent papers. The work ranges from good to very poor. Spe- 
cial class (3) has only poor and very poor papers according to 
proportion. 

(b) Under neatness, special class (1) has excellent, good and 
fair papers. Special class (2) has good, fair and poor papers. 
Special class (3) has excellent, good, fair and very poor papers. 

'(c) Under choice of colors, special class (1) has a range of 
excellent good and fair papers. Special class (2) has a range of 
good, fair and poor papers. Special class (3) has a range of fair, 
poor and very poor papers. 

7. The figures show that judgment, unlike success in interpret- 
ing ideas, is dependent upon mental development and school 
progress rather than age or experience of living. 

♦This may be due to the fact that the 7th and 4th grade pupils were graded to a little higher 
standard than the 8th or 5th grades. 



"Pro portion Choice oj Colors Ncatnes^ 

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Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 81 

Table III combines all the excellent, good, fair, poor and very 
poor papers of all groups in each grade, while Table IV is a gen- 
eral summary of all the excellent, good, fair, poor and very poor 
papers regardless of grade or group. It indicates that poorer 
judgment was used by all subjects in the matter of proportion than 
in the choice of colors or neatness. The largest number of papers 
when classified according to proportion fall in the fair and poor 
groups, while the largest number of papers when classified accord- 
ing to choice of colors fall in the good and fair groups, and the 
largest number of papers when classified according to neatness fall 
in the excellent and good groups. 

The next study of papers is made according to ages and test 
groups in Table V-a, to secure if possible a more even distibution 
of the successful attempts. The results of this grouping as shown 
in Table V-b seem to prove that success in interpreting ideas 
depends more upon age than upon formal training. The per cent, 
successful of the seventeen and sixteen-year groups corresponds 
more nearly to that of the nine and ten-year groups. The number 
of subjects at ages seventeen and sixteen is comparatively small, 
but if they were normal subjects their work should be better than 
that of any other subjects. It is needless to remark that the seven- 
teen and sixteen-year-old children found in the grammar grades 
are over-age for their school work, even if they are to be found 
in the eighth grade, but in this case, of the three subjects found 
in the seventeen-year group, one is in the sixth grade, but is only 
capable of doing third or fourth grade work, and the fact that she 
has a mental age of nine years makes the curve seem approxi- 
matley true for her work and is in all probability true for the 
work of the other two. 

The percentage successful of the sixteen-year group falls between 
the percentage successful of the ten and eleven-year groups. There 
are ten children in this group, only one of whom has been given 
the Binet tests, so it is not known what the average mental age 
of this group might be, but it is safe to assume that they arc 
retarded mentally as well as being retarded according to school 
grade, which, if true, the curve that shows the work of sixteen- 
year old children corresponds to that of the ten and eleven-year 
children is also approximately true. 



82 State Board of Charities 

Table V-a also shows that from fifteen down to six years there 
is the expected gradual decrease in the percentage successful, 
except at the age of thirteen where the percentage successful is 
lower than at the age of twelve. It is true there is a large number 
of over-age pupils at this age as shown in Tables VI and VII, 
but a further study shows that over-ageness other than feeble- 
mindedness does not affect the results to any marked degree. 
Thus another cause for this discrepancy must be sought. Since 
many of these children have been tested mentally and a partial 
study has been made of their family history and past environ- 
ment, it was decided to learn at what age the greatest number of 
feeble-minded children are to be found. For this purpose the 
ages having the greatest amount of over-ageness were studied 
and these are 14, 13 and 12 years. The results of this study 
appear in Table VIII which contains the number of feeble- 
minded, border-line, subnormal and normal cases. The term 
border-line is used for those cases about whom some doubt exists 
as to whether they are actually feeble-minded. Subnormal is 
used for those cases that are two and three years retarded men- 
tally but show some sign of further development. This table 
shows that there is a higher percentage of feeble-mindedness and 
border-line cases at thirteen years than at fourteen and twelve 
years, which may account for the drop in the percentage success- 
ful at that age. 

Table IX shows the efforts of the children at each age to draw a 
horse. The drawings are far removed from the objects to be repre- 
sented, but it is a point to their credit for not being overcome by 
the fact that they could not draw a horse. They did the best 
they could and labeled it a horse. Drummond says that " Young 
children draw not with the object of producing art but for the pur- 
pose of expressing their idea," and it seems from the results of 
this work that the same fact can be applied to the thirteen and 
fourteen-year-old children. Their idea in this case was to make 
a picture of the story which had a horse as a central figure and this 
is what they did regardless of whether the horse resembled a cat, 
dog, frog, lobster, walrus, giraffe, hippopotamus or a species of 
animal unknown to most people. One variety proved to be a 
transparent horse for it shows the man very clearly inside of the 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 83 

trunk of the horse. A large number have the appearance of toy 
horses so familiar to the average child. Many of them are on rol- 
lers, while others are so flat footed that they look as though they 
are attached to a flat board like many of the toy horses. Another 
characteristic of some of the horses is the cat-like and human ex- 
pression they bear. 

It is interesting to note that while 55 per cent, of the whole 
number tested succeeded in satisfying the requirements of the test, 
only 24 per cent, drew an animal that could be recognized as a 
horse, but only 2 per cent, failed to make an attempt at the horse. 
A glance at the totals of each group shows that Group I is the 
only group where the number who drew animals that could be rec- 
ognized as a horse is greater than the number whose horse could 
not be recognized as such. In fact some of the illustrations of a 
horse, in a paper by Eleanor Gibbons Sharp on children's draw- 
ings, are expressed as well as those drawn by children six, seven 
and eight years of age on this test. 

In the drawings, the man or the driver was given many vari- 
eties of facial expression, which in the last analysis were reduced 
to four types; full face, profile, outline and blur or blot. (See 
Table X.) In his study of children's drawings Earl Barnes found 
that at the age of six years children draw twice as many full 
faces as profiles. From the ages six to thirteen years, full faces 
decrease and profiles increase. In this test, there was only one 
child at six years and her drawing happened to be a profile of the 
man. At the age of seven, however, no profiles were attempted, 
and as in Earl Barnes' study, the number of full faces decreases 
and the number of profiles increases from the ages of six to thir- 
teen years. At the ages of thirteen and twelve there are a greater 
number who make no attempt to draw the man than at any other 
age. These are probably the careful and exact children who would 
rather draw nothing at all than make a poor representation, or 
they may be the same children who caused the percentage of suc- 
cessful papers to drop at the age of thirteen. There were 52, or 
9 per cent, of the whole number, who made no attempt to draw the 
driver as compared with the 14 or 2 per cent, who made no attempt 
to draw the horse. In Dr. Lukens' study of 1,232 spontaneous 
drawings, he quotes 'Sully who says: " The human figure comes 



84 State Board of Charities 

first in the child's interest and animals closely follow. 7 ' In this 
test the fact that the horse is the central figure of the story may 
account for more children drawing the horse than the driver. 

Of the whole number of children who took this test, 159 have 
been tested mentally according to the Binet scale of measuring 
intelligence. As this had been done, the drawings of these chil- 
dred tested mentally were studied separately to find out if mental 
retardation affected the results of the test. Table XI is a classifi- 
cation of the groups according to mental and chronological ages. 
Of the number tested, 21 are in Group I, 12 are in Group II, 
and 53 are in Group III, which shows that 54 per cent, of the 
number tested mentally succeeded with this test. The table shows 
that : 

1. Children whose mental age is below X years stand a poor 
chance of succeeding. 

2. The average or retarded children whose mentality is not 
less than X years succeed. 

3. Complete failure above the age of X years is indicative of 
mental backwardness or defectiveness, although success does not 
always indicate normality. 

4. This test depends more upon chronological age than upon 
mental age, for it is the children whose chronological ages range 
from sixteen to eleven years with mental ages from twelve to ten 
years inclusive who form the greater part of the first three suc- 
cessful groups. 

5. A seven-year-old child with a seven-year mentality has no 
chance of success, while Table V shows that a seven-year-old child 
has one chance in irve of succeeding. 

6. This test is beyond the comprehension of a six-year-old 
child. 

7. With the exception of two children whose mental ages are 
XI and IX there is a greater number with low mentalities in 
Group VII than in any other group. 

With the fourth conclusion in mind, that the test is dependent 
upon chronological age, the following classification was made after 
a close study of each paper at each mental and chronological age 
mentioned. 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 



85 



GROUP I 
The 14 year old children 
with a X year men- 
tality do as good 
work as the 14 year 
children with a XII 
year mentality. 

GROUP II 

The 14 year old children 
with a X year mem- 
tality do better than 
the 14 year old chil- 
dren with XII year 
mentality. 

GROUP III 
The 14 year old children 
with a X year men- 
tality do better than 
the 14 year old chil- 
dren with a XII year 
mentality. 



GROUP I 
There are no 13 year 
old children with a 
XII year mentality. 



GROUP II 
There are no 13 year 
old children with 
either a X or XII 
year mentality. 



GROUP III 
The 13 year old chil- 
dren with a X year 
mentality do as well 
as the 13 year old 
children with a XII 
year mentality. 

GROUP IV 
The 13 j^ear old chil- 
dren with a X year 
mentality do as well 
as the 13 year old 
children with XII 
year mentality 



GROUP I 
The 12 year old children 
with a X year mental- 
ity do as good work as 
the 12 year old children 
with a XII year men- 
tality. 

GROUP II 
The 12 year old children 
with an XI year men- 
tality do better work 
than the 12 year old 
children with a X 
year mentality. 

GROUP III 
The 12 year old children 
with a X year mental- 
ity do as well as the 12 
year old children with 
a XII year mentality. 

GROUP IV 
The 12 year old children 
with a X year mental- 
ity do as well as the 12 
year old children with 
a XII year mentality. 



GROUP I 
There are no 1 1 year old 
children with a X year 
mentality. 



GROUP II 
The 11 year old children 
with a X year mental- 
ity do as good work as 
the 11 year old chil- 
dren with an XI year 
mentality. 

GROUP III 

The 11 year old children 
with a X year mental- 
ity do better than the 
11 year old children 
with an XI year men- 
tality. 

GROUP IV 
The 11 year old children 
with a X year mental- 
ity do as well as the 11 
year old children with 
an XI year mentality. 



Table XII is worked out from the results of Table XL It is 
assumed that all the children who were not tested mentally are 
normal and the percentage retarded of the whole number tested is 
found. In Group I it is 12, in Group II, 20, in Group III, 15, 
in Group IV, 15, in Group V, 26, in Group VI, 25 and in Group 
VII, 79. The high percentage of retardation in Group VII indi- 
cates quite clearly why this group failed. Nine of the fourteen 
subjects in this group are in special classes and are the ones 
who are more likely to fail on all problems. 

Some time before the drawing test was conducted, a study of the 
mentalitv of one division of the 4A class was made. With these 
data at hand, it was decided to use the work of this class as a unit 
and find out if possible, how the mental ages in the successful 
groups of this class compared with the mental ages in the success- 
ful groups of all the children tested. It was found (in Table 
XIII): . 

1. That in Group I, the children with an Xl-year mentality 
predominate, which is also true in Group I, Table XI. 

2. In Group II as in Table XI, Group II, the children with a 
X-year mentality predominate. 

3. There are no children in the first three groups with a men- 
tality lower than X years. Table XI shows mentalities of IX, 
VIII and VII years in Group ITT. 



86 State Board of Charities 

4. Of the 18 children with a X-year mentality, 4 have a chron- 
ological age of ten years, 2 have a chronological age of nine years, 
and the remaining 12 range from eleven to thirteen years inclu- 
sive, which proves once more that experience rather than mental- 
ity has helped them to grasp the idea of the story and express it. 
Sixty per cent, of the X-year mentality children (in grade 4A) 
succeeded as compared with 46 per cent, of the children whose 
chronological age is ten years. (See Table V.) 

5. Seventy-three per cent, of the children in this one division 
of 4 A succeeded with the test as compared with 69 per cent, of all 
the 4A children. 

6. 'Seven of the children whose papers fall in Group IV, show 
a fair understanding of the story. The other subject in this group 
is a twelve-year old child with a X-year mentality. Her drawing 
is the poorest in the group as is also her regular class work. 

Tables XIV and XV were made out for the purpose of finding 
how the work of the institution children at each age compares with 
that of the regular public school children. A summary of these 
tables is found in Table XVI and shows : 

1. Xo seventeen-year old institution children succeeded. 

2. At sixteen years, the percentage successful of the institution 
and public school children is equal. 

3. At the age of fifteen years, the percentage ' of the public 
school children successful is higher than the percentage of the 
institution children. 

4. At the ages of fourteen, thirteen and twelve the percentage 
of the institution children successful is higher than the percentage 
of the public school children. The difference in the numbers at 
those ages may account for the difference in the percentage suc- 
cessful. 

4. From eleven to nine years inclusive, the percentage of the 
institution children successful is much lower than the percentage 
successful of the public school children. 

6. Xo eight or seven-year old institution children were suc- 
cessful. 

7. With both the institution and public school children there is 
the same drop in the percentage successful at the age of thirteen 
years as is found when all of the children are arranged according 
to chronological ages. 



Performance Xorms for Thirteen Tests 87 

8. At the ages of seventeen and sixteen years, the percentage 
over-age of both classes of children is the same. 

9. From the age of fifteen through nine years the percentage 
over-age of the institution children is higher than the percentage 
over-age of the public school children. 

10. There are no public school children over-age below the age 
of ten years. 

In reacting to this test subjects usually put forth as much atten- 
tion and concentration as possible. They first followed the direc- 
tions given about the heading of the drawing papers and then 
listened to the reading of the story. The next move after being 
told to illustrate by drawing the passage written on the board was 
to collect the facts of the story in mind and express them. There 
was no limitation as to how they should do the work hence they 
were able to use considerable originality. True, many of the 
excess details are alike, but the manner of expression in almost 
every case is quite different. Many showed trees growing by the 
wayside, but the trees are of quite different* species, some true to 
nature and some not. Then again flower beds appear in the draw- 
ing, but the flowers are different in kind and coloring. The test 
was given at the height of the tulip season and it was natural to 
have the flower that was most in evidence at the time appear on the 
papers. 

Another detail that appeared in many papers was the sun, blaz- 
ing forth strong enough to overcome any animal. The appearance 
of chickens and other barnyard animals made the drawings look 
as if the incident of backing a heavy load into a barn only hap- 
pened in the country or on a farm. Why so many of these city 
children drew such a rural scene is unknown. 

In many of the papers the excess details fitted the season, but 
one boy for some reason showed a distinctly winter scene. The 
horse appears as though he is stiff from the cold, while the wagon 
that is to be backed into the barn seems to have slipped or skidded 
on the slippery ground away from the horse. To the left of the 
baiTi is a large American flag, which from appearance must have 
been out in a rain storm and then froze stiff. To the left of the 
flag is a boy sliding down hill on his sleigh in regular boy fashion. 

The labels on the wagons was another striking detail. The test 
was made in one of the Utica schools so that the wagons rep] 



88 State Board oe Charities 

sented various firms in that city. Among them was the " Utica 
•Carting Co.," " The Utica Tin Co.," " Jones of Utica " and " The 
Utica Express Co." Most of the children showed a preference 
for the Studebaker make of truck. 

While one would expect a wagon loaded with bars of iron to be 
of the regular truck type, the wagons shown on the drawing papers 
in several instances were far removed from trucks. There are 
many light wagons of the grocery wagon type, others look like 
hay rigging, and still others resemble a small auto truck with a 
horse attached. One is a large covered wagon of the circus type, 
with the coloring according to the circus idea, and one child who 
apparently had the idea of the story in mind, has the horse back- 
ing into the open door of the barn a wagon that is nothing more 
than an old-fashioned covered carriage. 

The barn and the barnyard offered plenty of opportunity for 
decoration and excess details. The barn was often painted in the 
gayest colors with gorgeous trimmings. Many of the barns had 
chimneys from which smoke was emerging. Some children had a 
horseshoe over the door of the barn, while others felt as though 
the barn windows were incomplete without lace curtains. A few 
of the children added the farm house that usually goes with a 
barn. One of these showed a woman, evidently the man's wife, at 
the door of the house calling, " John, when are you coming to 
supper ? " 

In the barnyard were many farm implements scattered about as 
though the workmen had just dropped them to go to dinner. The 
pump that is always in evidence in farmyards was also shown, as 
were various kinds of fruit trees. Like the shade trees that are 
mentioned above, they are of different and some of unknown 
species. One drawing shows yellow, green and red fruit coming 
from the same tree. The birds that are so often seen in trees are 
also represented. 

The name of the story illustrated is " Kindness to Animals," 
and many of the children who remembered every detail of the 
story did their best to illustrate each one, but in their effort to 
express the idea of kindness to the horse, they represent the horse 
in every position possible. One man in his effort to help pulled 
the wagon away from the horse, with the final result of giving the 
impression that the man rather than the horse is doing all the 



Performance Korms for Thirteen Tests 89 

work of backing the wagon into the barn. Another boy presum- 
ably felt that four legs are not sufficient for a horse when he has 
to work so hard, so arranged the tail long and stiff enough, so that 
it could be used in the same manner as a leg. 

The man shown in more than seventy-five per cent, of the 
papers offers another field for freedom of expression. He is 
dressed in working clothes of various colors and hues, in overalls 
and jumpers that are yellow, red, "Alice ' blue, and in some cases 
with polka dots. Oftentimes his shirt sleeves are rolled up high 
enough to show his red flannel under shirt. Many of the children 
not only show kindness to the horse, but show this same considera- 
tion for the man by allowing him to smoke his pipe while he is 
working so hard. 

The writers who have given consideration to the expression of 
ideas by drawing seem to agree that children naturally draw out 
of their own heads and not from the object, even when it is put- 
before them. This fact applies to the work of the seven and 
eight year old children and to the children in the lower special 
classes who are feeble-minded and Who have mental ages of seven 
and eight years and sometimes lower. The directions were given 
to them in the same manner as they were given to the other 
children. They listened to the story with attention, but their 
memory span and power to retain mental images were not suffi- 
cient to enable them to keep the details of the story in mind long 
enough to express them. But the fact that they could not express 
the story as they heard it did not keep them from drawing out 
of their own heads. One boy who is past eight years, but whose 
mentality falls below the Binet scale drew two fish-like animals 
in blue and orange. Another boy whose reactions to other tests 
and to school work are typically feeble-minded, but who, because 
of his youth is held as an observation case, drew a. somewhat 
straight line with colored spots and a colored hooked line en one 
end, which in all probability is meant for the head of somr 
animal. Another seven year old child, departed from the idea of 
animals and drew an oblong, which is apparently meanl for n 
house for it has stairs coming from it, upon which are three 
ladies, one on each step who appear as though they are about t<> 
give an exhibition of the latest dances. There is another paper 
on the same order, only the house is more clearly and more £es- 



00 State Board of Charities 

tively drawn. It has three chimneys, all of which are pouring 
out smoke and most remarkable of all is that the house is trans- 
parent, for the lady who is supposed to be in the house can be seen 
where there are no windows or doors giving some sort of a dancing 
exhibition. This house also has stairs. 

Another seven year old child drew what is meant to be a house 
from which sprouts a two-legged-three-toed horse suspended in the 
air bird fashion. 

The only six year old child who took the test drew a two- 
legged flat-footed animal being pushed foreward by an exceedingly 
long waisted man or boy who is using the animal's tail as the 
reins. 

An eleven year old child with an eight year mentality used the 
whole sheet to draw a portion of a house with a cherry tree sprout- 
ing from the roof. There is an object in the doorway of the house 
which might be taken for a man or an animal. 

The house idea is again shown on a paper of an eight year old 
child with a seven year mentality. Like the others it is highly 
colored and the windows have blue, brown, purple and red 
curtains. All the colors are shown on one curtain. This house 
also has smoke coming out of the chimney. In the doorway of 
the house, is a man doing some kind of a dance. 

A ten year old child with a seven year mentality drew a few 
lines to represent a horse, made a good attempt at the wagon and 
drew a few more lines for the man. All this seems to be in a 
highly colored frame, which upon careful study is thought to be 
a rug, for the children in this class were working on different 
colored rags in preparation to weaving a. rug. 

An arrangement, made by a seven year old child with a six 
year mentality, is too original for interpretation except by the 
person who drew it. It is a house-like effect with a large open 
space for a door. In this space is a man who has a hat larger 
than himself resting on a circular effect presumably the man's 
head, within which is another head and shoulders. The rest of 
the body is one straight line coming from the circle. There is 
also a tent in this aperture, which has as its only decoration a 
long line resembling a. flag pole on the top of which is a blot of 
orange coloring which is undoubtedly a flag. 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 91 

These instances of the work of seven and eight year old children, 
and of older children with VII and VHI-year mentalities, seem 
sufficient to show that the vouneer children draw out of their 
heads even when the models are set before them, or when the ideas 
for the drawing are given them. 

Summary and Conclusion. — In this test the story was read, a 
passage of the story was written on the blackboard and the chil- 
dren were then told to illustrate the passage by drawing and to 
use as much of the story as they could remember to help them to 
make a. good drawing. Success depended in the first instance 
upon the attention given, and upon auditory, visual and retentive 
memory. The work was carried on by grades, but the results of 
the study of the papers proved that the ability to express four 
details correctly does not depend upon grade development, for in 
more than one instance a lower grade scored a better rating than 
a more advanced grade. After this was learned, the results were 
studied according to age development, which proved to be more 
satisfactory than by grade development. The scoring by ages 
proves for these children that: 

1. The work of the seventeen and sixteen-vear-old chil- 
dren corresponds to the work of the nine and eleven-year-old 

. children respectively. 

2. The ability to express four details of a story correctly 
and to show action is a fourteen-year performance. 

3. For some unknown reason the thirteen-year-old chil- 
dren do not do as well as the twelve-vear-old children. 

4. a. Sixty-nine per cent, of the twelve-year-old children 
comprehend a test of this sort. 

b. Fifty-six per cent, of the eleven-year-old children 
can express four details of a story, but in a cruder 
manner than the twelve, thirteen and fourteen-year-old 
children. One eleven-year-old child in 64 failed entirely 
to grasp the idea. 

c. Only 4(i per cent, of the average ten-year-old chil- 
dren can grasp the idea of four details and express 
them by drawing, but SI per cent, of the ten-year-old 
children do well with two or three details. 

5. Tins test is beyond the comprehension of the average 

von, eight and nine-year-old children, although precocious 



92 State Board of Charities 

children, of any of these ages may succeed. The children of 
these ages would do well with a story of three details. 

6. The children were not prevented from doing the test 
because they were unable to draw well. Only 24 per cent, 
of the children who took the test succeeded in drawing an 
animal that could be recognized as a horse. 

7. In drawing the man or driver, a variety of facial 
expressions was shown, but the figures illustrate the fact 
that younger children draw more full faces, while older 
children draw more profiles. 

8. The per cent, of retardation in group VII when com- 
pared with the per cent, of retardation in the other groups 
is sufficient to account for the absolute failure of this group. 

9. a. Children with mental ages below X years stand a 
poor chauce of succeeding with a test of this sort. 

b. In the group of children who were tested men- 
tally, it is not the " at age " children, that is the children 
whose mental ages correspond to their chronological 
ages, who form the larger per cent, of successes. 

c. Disregarding the over-age or retarded group. 

Mental age Per cent, successful 

XII 95 

XI 79 

X 57 

IX 20 

VIII 30 

VII 8 

d. Of the children VII, VIII and IX years old 
mentally who succeeded, only one of these is " at age." 
That is an eight-year-old child with a mental age of 
VIII years. Of the children with a mental age of IX 
years, three are twelve years old, and one is ten years 
old. The child with the mental age of VII has a 
chronological age of ten years. 

10. The judgment used by the children depends upon 
grade development or formal training. 

11. The younger children make a more absurd application 
of colors and use a greater variety of colors than the older 
children. 



Performance Noems for Thirteen Tests 



93 



TABLE I 

Four Detail Drawing 
Distribution of Children by School Grades and Test Groups 









Test Group 






Num- 
ber 








School Grade 


SUCCESSFUL 


UNSUCCESSFUL 








tested 










Per cent 
success- 






















I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


ful 


8A 


48 


14 


4 


18 


10 


2 






75 


SB 


28 


7 


2 


18 


1 








96 


7A 


37 


11 


3 


8 


14 




1 




59 


7B 


60 


13 


11 


17 


13 


4 


2 




68 


6A 


29 


9 


2 


8 


7 




3 




65.5 


6B 


36 


5 


4 


13 


10 


2 


2 




61 


5A 


38 
23 


10 
6 


'"6 


14 

7 


13 
2 


.... 


1 
2 


.... 


63 


5B 


82.6 


4A 


51 


9 


5 


21 


13 


2 




1 


68.6 


4B 


50 
52 
30 


3 
2 


.... 


22 

20 

2 


18 
21 

8 


2 

7 
18 


5 
1 
2 


.... 


50 


3A 


44 


3B 


6.6 


2A 


29 


2 


2 


9 


9 


4 


3 




44 


2B 


37 


1 




4 


15 


6 


7 


4 


13.5 


Special (1) 


24 


5 




9 


10 








58 


Special (2) 


19 






9 


1 


3 


5 


1 


47 


Special (3) 


19 


.... 




1 




8 


2 


8 


5 






Total 


610 


97 


40 


200 


165 


58 


36 


14 


55 







01 



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Performance Xorms for Thirteen Tests 95 



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Ph 



o 

M 

« 
O 

O 

« 
Pi 



^ O 

> a 



o 
o 

Ph 



c3 



NNCON 



CO i-H (M <M i-H i-tCO<N00 



CO •*•*■* i-H (MIC'* • CO • -i-l • - <N 



HH1I • -i-t »-!■<#-* ■ IM -rH<N 



o 
o 

O 



rH -<N • iH 






OT 3 

<U o 



I I-H >> ►> I-H l-H l-( I— lt>t> l-H>>l-l>-l l-HI-ll-l> 

i-i CI ^ h> i-h i — 1 1_, *^ | - | CL^>i-h H -"- H tl 

H H ^f> l-H 1-1 l-H* -1 *^[> l-H^ 



(H 

« 

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j 
o 
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co 



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a 


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VkKKORM A\CK TSoKMS ]'()]; 'i' 1 1 I 1JT l'.K \ TESTS 



D7 






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co 
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Co 



CO 

CO 
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H G 



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jj co 

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co 






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r>> [- 
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CO o 



x cm ! m 



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fa. 



T3 
o 
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D 

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CC:tC'OiOIMi->HhciXN(M(NCOI 

rH H I-l H H C>| ClMKrt r^MHH 



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CO 



ttMNOiNN X t>-0- Ci-O i-i '0 -f <C 

CM ~H i—l OI rH i— I i— I OI i— I 



co 

a 



o 

CO 



CM 



OI if CO (M t^- 00 



JO 



ex 



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CM 



I CM 



L- I> CO if -f CO O CM CO CO X CM O CO 1-1 O CO 

i— ( 1— (rH CM CO CM r- 1 rH rH i— I 



01 



cfOMOffiooMcjHca-tioM 

CI rH rH CM CM rH OI rH Ol rH rH rH 



OI 
CM 
CM 



co 



-f 
co 



o 

CO 



r-i^Olt>l0irirH^C0 

OI HC) 



CO 



X 
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■* 
^ 







co • • 



OM^OMO^OifH-l- 



I I 



X 



-Ti CO X CSO COiN'CiNHOCiiCHHM 

HHH rHrHCM rHi-rrH 






co 



o 

OI 



HH Ol H H H I — HM 



1 -t >o i^ OS »•' 



<N CM i— © t- CM SO 

CM rH rH rH 



rH CO CO r-> -f 



'O 


co 


t^ 




M 


o 

CO 


rH • 


rH 


Si 




rH 


00 
1—i 



x <i- 



t— rH » >^ 



71 



01 

CI 



g t. £ 

- c *- 

— _a m 



OOXNOCOOOMHONOOStC 
-T Ol P3 50 Ol CO CO 01 it i0 iO CO CM CO EN — 



CO 
CO 



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o 



■- 



<; 

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a 

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— ri cc 



— p-^ f— 1 


q 








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<»-<;eQ aau 


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98 



State Boaed of Charities 



TABLE IV 

Four Detail Deawing 
Summary of Table III, ivithout Regard to Grade or (J roup 





Number 


Per cent. 


Number 


Per cent. 


Number 


Per cent. 


Excellent 


22 
111 
187 
179 
111 


3.6 
18.2 
30.7 
29.3 
18.2 


88 

222 

209 

79 

12 


14.4 
36.4 
34.3 
12.9 
2.0 


193 

266 

119 

20 

12 


31 6 




43.6 


Fair 


19.5 


Poor 


3.3 


Vorv Door 


2.0 






Total 


610 


100 


610 


100 


610 


100 







a. 



TABLE V 

Four Detail Drawing 
Distribution by Test Groups and Physical Ages 











Group 










Physical Age 
















Total 


















I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 




17 


1 

2 
10 
24 


2 

7 


3 

14 
27 


2 

3 

4 

17 


1 
1 


1 

1 




3 


16 


10 


15 


32 


14 


75 


13 


21 


10 


32 


33 


6 


7 




109 


12 


17 


11 


39 


19 


6 


4 


1 


97 


11 


9 


5 


22 


21 


5 


1 


1 


64 


10 


10 


2 


27 


26 


10 


9 




84 


9 




2 


22 


21 


17 


4 


2 


68 


8 


2 




11 


10 


12 


4 


3 


42 


7 


1 


1 


3 


9 




4 


7 


25 


6 












1 




1 


Total 


97 


40 


200 


165 


58 


36 


» 


610 







b. Table of Success by Physical Ages 




Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 



99 



TABLE VI 

Four Detail Drawing 
Distribution of Over-ageness by Physical Ages 

a. Over-ageness 









OVER-AGENES8 






Physical Age 
















1 year 


2 years 


3 years 


4 years 


5 years 


Total 


17 






2 




1 


3 


16 ■ 




7 

4 

10 

15 


3 
5 

4 
4 


2 
1 
3 


1 
2 


10 


15 


20 
25 
15 


31 


14 


41 


13 


39 


12 


24 


17 




1 


2 


44 


11 


15 


1 


n 

i 




1 


24 


10 


6 


8 


8 






22 


9, 


13 


1 


1 






15 


Total 


118 


63 


34 


7 


7 


229 



b. Number of Over-age Pupils Who Succeeded and Failed at 

Each Physical Age 





One 


Vear 


Two Years 


Three 


Years 


Four 


Years 


Five 


Veahs 


A<;k 


Suc- 
cessful 


Unsuc- 
cessful 


Suc- 
cessful 


Unsuc- 
cessful 


Suc- 
cessful 


Unsuc- 
cessful 


Suc- 
cessful 


Unsuc- 
cessful 


Suc- 
cessful 


Unsuc- 
cessful 


17 




3 
9 
6 
9 
6 
fi 
13 


4 
o 
o 

5 

9 

9 

1 


3 

1 
5 
6 
8 

8 
1 


1 
1 
4 

O 

Q 

1 

3 


1 
2 
1 
1 
3 

7 

5 

1 


1 
1 
1 


1 

2 
1 


1 
1 
2 

T 


1 


16 


17 
16 

9 
15 

9 




15 

14 

13 


1 


12 




11 




10 

9 









Total.. 


66 


52 


31 


32 


13 


21 




4 


2 



c. Per Cent, of Over-age Pupils Successful at Each Physical Ag( 





Age 


One year 


Two years 


T, 

l tree years 


Four years 


17 








50 

33 

80 
75 

25 




16 




57 

7.-, 
50 
6 i 

.-.2 

L00 




15 


85 
64 
60 

62 
60 


:.i) 


14 




100 


13 




33 


12 






11 








10 




;;7 




<) 























five \ ' 



100 

50 

100 

100 



hich also shows iIimI over-ageness does qoI affecl succes 



materially. 



LOO 



State Board of ( Iharities 



a. 



TABLE VII 

ETo'Ufi Detail Drawing 

pis/ rihu/itm of Over-iKjc Pttpils hi/ Test Groups 



1 
I 

Over-age Total 




(inori' 


1 


!i 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


vn 


One year | 118 


16 
10 

7 
2 

35 


3 


45 

18 

6 

1 

5 


33 

is 
9 
1 
1 


14 

7 
9 
1 
1 


3 

7 
2 

2 


2 


Four years | 7 

Five years 7 


1 






Total 229 


8 


75 


02 


32 


14 


3 



b. Per coiit. of Over-age Pupils in Each Test Group 





(iuorp 


Number 
over-age 


Per cent, 
over-age 


T 




3 

8 
75 

- 

14 

3 




15 2 


11 


3 4 


Ill 


33 


IV 


27 


V 


1 l 


VI 


6.1 


vn 


1 3 








Total 


229 




100 







Per vent, of over-age pupils successful, 51.0, 

Per cent, of over-age pupils unsuccessful, 4-8.4. 

Three 10-vear-old children, 3 vears over-asje, suh led and 

fall in the third group. Similarly niic 11-year old child, 5 years 

over-age, falls in Group III. 



PERFORMANCE No&BiS ro»H ThIBTFBEIS TESTS 



101 



c. Per Cent. Successful of Over-age Pupils Distributed Accord- 
ing to Amount of ()rcr~<i(/(')i('ss 



C\ EK-A.GE 


Total 


Number 

suceass- 

fd 


Per cent . 
•success- 
ful 


One year 


US 

<>3 

34 

7 

7 


66 
31 

13 
3 
5 


51 i 


Two years 


49 


Three years 


38 


Four years 


48 


Five rears 


7! 







The amount of OYer-ageaiess does not affect success. 



TABLE VIII 

Four Detail Drawing 

Number and Per Cent, of Feeble-minded ' , Border-line. Subnormal 
and Normal Cases at Ages 14, 13 and 12 





Feeble-minded 


BORDER-LINE 


Subnormal 


Normal 


Age 
















1 


Num- 


Per 


Num- 


Per 


Num- 


Per 


Num- 


Per 




ber 


oenfc. 


ber 


cent. 


ber 


cent. 


ber 


cent. 


14 


1 


7 


2 


14 


6 


43 


5 


36 


13 


5 


IS 


11 


41 


5 


18 


6 


22 


12 


2 


6 


4 


12 


15 


44 


13 


38 



L02 



State Boaed ok Charities 



o 
55 

X * 

P 
o 



8 

to 
O 

50 

50 



50 



^5 
50 






50 

5_> 



CO 

53 



50 

O 



CO 50 
to 



e 

50 

CO 



^3 

53 

CO 

p 

CO 
50 



50 

53 

8 

50 

■»— 







— i 






01 


— 


i — 1 




tcci- 




99 3 




o S 










«— i i—i 


y. L 6 










CO 


— s 








_ MOOONiOOh-OOar.H 


CO < 








cN^ccr-Ti^'Oro-H 


-t 




J 


y, 




T)< • 




■+, 










& 












O 








^^ 


H 


CO I— ' 


Hocodoo-foc • —< • 


CO 03 


9 


CO -*> CM ^h fh 


2o 




>H 


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01 




coo 




1—1 1— < 


^ o 




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o 










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w 










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Ctf 
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i-h • -CI • • -CM • i-i • 


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. . . . . 






,d 













o ; 
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■ • • •* co -t» «. -^ co ih 


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co 


• 1— ( • r— 1 i— 1 i— i ~j • • • ■ 


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a> 










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r-l O H H f ■) H H 


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■ •oo«t^co • • • 


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CD 


• • 1— 1 ... 


~/> 






5* 














co •# co o cm <m co oj >-< co • 


•c 






o 


HHUMflNnrt 


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55 




i— t 




I-H 
I-H 






















• • Ci CM l> • t* CO ■ • • 


>o 






0) 


1— 1 • ... 


co 






>H 














• i-H CO CM CO CM CM CM • i-h • 


1-H 






o 




<M 






55 


• 






1— 1 












1— ( 












CO 


• rH T0 00 CO CO 


© 






<D 




i—i 






5h 














HOOO«!H/N -cm • • 


ic; 






o 


1-H I— 1 ... 


-# 




t— < 


55 








CO •"" 


i-h rf Tf i— i CM ".0 CO • -i-h • 


cm 






a> 


T— 1 1 —* ■ 


o 






>i 








H 






























O 






























< 
























o o 




r^ 


S3 


'- 


-!■ 


X 


CM 


— 


c 


~ 


XI 


t^ 


o 









CM ?« CO 

■H OCN 

coot-* 

I~CM 



3 






en 

o 
* S o 

-s s « 

° S-2 

^ 3 S 
*j 3.— 

^ d 

OO) so 

jc 2 o 

oi£ 

G 04 c3 

e3 <p flJ 

"3TJ 

OOO 

-d-d .a 
fc fe S 



d d d 

v a) a> 

y o y 

h h b 

OJ OJ 0J 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 



103 









X 



o 

< 
Q 



© 

'<s> 

CO 

J* 

H Q ^ 



-3 



< 



o 



5: 

© 



■3 

O 


p«v>i 




1 2 

1 CO 


3jn3g ojsj 


•HMMOOC>t(ih.Tf «* 


CM 


•"Ma 


f-i -1 lO O Ol N !>• M 1(5 !C CD 
^H -* CM CM CM — • 


O 
*— 1 


aai|jno 




CO 


aigojj 


i-Hcocicoo^csco^o-^Tt* •*— 


CM 
CM 


awia nnj J 




00 

1—1 
*H 


1— 1 

> 


3jn3g o^j 




• -H 1— t 


■ CM CO 


r- 


•> n ia 










3ui|;no 




i-H 


1-4 


ajgojj 










M3IA |[nj 






1 r-l ^* 


1° 
1 


t— 4 

> 


ajnSg 0^ I 


i-H ■ T(< ^ iH ifl CO CO >-l 


CO 
CM 


■"Ma 




• • CM • ■ CM — 


i-H 


1 






• 1— 1 • • ■ 




I" 

1 




<-H 


• -rt I N 


AvaiA. j[t\j 




i-H 


■ CO • 


1 


> 


a.m3g o^j 

jn ia 

aaipno 




• 1— < 1- 


H i-H i-H 

• CM CM 


CO • • 

i—l 


1" 

1 




. . . c 


1 2 




1-H 1— 


1 M> 
1 


3 igoja J 


• -Cfl • • CM •»* 


1—4 


1 ® 
1—1 


AvaiA [[nj 


: : 


1— 1 • CO CM Tt< ttl O 


t- • 


— H 

CO 


> 


9.1 n8g 0^ 
anig 


T-l CN 


NN^COHrHrt 


1—1 


1 o 

1 1—1 


! '. ' 


H tH rjl CO Ci 'J' CO -CM 


1 ° 

1 CO 


8ui|jno 




• -iiO 1-1 M ->f CO ■* CO • 


CO 
CM 


3|yoj c i 


1-H i— 1 


1 00 


443IA J]" j 




- rj< ••* CO CO c© ifl ■**< ■** 


1 «© 
co 


I— 1 


jn [a 


• •( 


■O CO O — -h O rt< CM CM • 

1-H 1—1 1-H 1— 1 • 


OS 


3a m r o 




■W«!OM<CO'*'-i • 

1— 1 


1 M 

Ico 


aigojj 


• CO < 


D (N O! CD -- t-- r)l 


CM 


•* 


A\3IA [|I\>J [ 


— t- CM CO t~- T*l Tf 


CO • • 


CO 


M 
1— 1 


•""la 




• CM • •»*< CO CM 


• 1—1 


<M 


3u m n o 




• i-H 

S •*< 00 t> 


• i—i 




1 " 

1 CO - 
CM 


ajgojd | 


• CM 




MaiA [|ti,[ 




• ■— 1 t-h • 1— « 




CO 


*— « 


jnjg 


^HrHW^ifOOTflO 


• i-H 


CO 
CM 


.)ui|;n 


■ » 


Hl/JCNHHH 


CM • • 


CO 

1-^ 


aigojj 


• »-< c 


S OO Tjl O ■* * • 

1-H 1-H — 




1 - 
10 


UDIA |[tWJ 


•« 


*1 • CM 






■* 


H 

O 


1 - -O ■ 


- -r »- ? 


— - -■ 


/•j 1 - -O 


3 

1 











[<M 



S T \ i K RoABD OF ( 'iiAirn Iks 



CO 
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CJ1 



CO 







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£ 




o 


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£ 


r~o 






53 

-to 


1— t 

X 


< 

Q 




w 


j 




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PQ 


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< 


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g £ 

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CO 



a 

o 

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s 


ft 
p 
o 
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! 


i— i 












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i— i 
i— i 
t— t 

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1-* 






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f 


i— i 










1-* 




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X 






^^ 




^h »— i 


■*-* 


















: 












i— I 
►— * 

X 














1 












P 

o 
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>— 1 

t-H 
>> 














y— ( »— t 








M 






CM 


CO »— 1 H 1 






X 








<-l <M -<*l »rt CO 










1— 1 








<-* CO 


1 








t— 1 










i— i 














1—4 
t— < 

ft 

P 

o 

£ 




















o 

cc 




1— I 
> 
















i 




N 












co 


~ 






K- 








<— 1 C« t— ^< T> 


1—1 






H-fe 










Tf O CO 1 










M 




T— 1 T— i T— 1 »0 CO j *— 1 CM 








Group II 


H 








y— 1 


CM CM i-H 

1 


















co .j : 

1 : 
















T-H 


i— ( 
















x i 






CM <— c CM 












ft 

P 

o 

a 

o 


1— 1 






CM. CO CM 


CM 1 i— I 








X 






CO 
















w 
to 

1 




t~ 


CC 


1C 


-tf 


K 


C^ 


^H 


O 


OS 


oo 


r~ 


i 
1 



Performance Xoums for Thirteen Tests 



105 



^3 

I-—S 
S 

o 
O 



X 
« 

< 







■ 5 

/J OJ 

o 






O iC — 
00 00 IT 


) 

' 00 c 
> co ir 


1 O' 
) x* 


if! 








o 

< 

-< 

H 
H 

s 


■< 

o 


1— 1 


















»— 1 




> 
























>— l 
> 
















f— 1 






> 


• 










<-" ih ^Jl lO H 


1—1 
t— 1 
l-H 

> 






1— 1 


»-H CNJ CO CO — '_ 






1— < 






VO CO CO <^> CO 

1 






M 






r-t lO <© t~- CM 0« CO 

1 








T— 1 


<M ■* ©> oo r— eg 








1-H 




•-H 1-H lO (D VO| r-H CO 








i— i 

t— i 

> 

a. 
D 
O 
B 

a 


i— i 


















^H 




> 




















co 


i—t 
> 




















CO 


> 
















CO t-i 1-1 


> 














1 




















1 






X 












1— 1 


1 








X 












1 










i— < 












1 












> 

a, 
fc> 
o 
PS 

O 


> ! 














^-t 






>— 1 

1— 1 

> 




















1 


►— 1 
1— I 
1— ( 

> 














1 




l—t 










CO 


" 1 






M 












CO 

1 








t— • 


i-H 








1 










a 1 










1 














o 

■/j 




1 


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> M" 


i 


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r 


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10(> 



STATK I \o \\r> OV ( IjIARlTIES 



TABLE XII 

Four Detail Drawing 

Distribution According to Test Groups of Children Retarded 

Mentally 



CIkoups 



I. 

II. 
III. 

IV 
V 

VI 
VII 



Total 
number 



97 
40 
200 
165 
58 
36 
14 



Number 

tested 

mentally 



Per cent. 

of each 

group 

tested 



21 
12 
53 
32 
18 
11 
12 



Number 

retarded 

of each 

group 

tested 



Per cent. 

retarded 

of each 

group 

tested 



22 
30 
27 
19 
31 
31 
86 



12 


57 


8 


66 


30 


57 


25 


78 


15 


83 


9 


81 


11 


91 



Per cent. 

of total 
retarded 



12 
20 
15 
15 
26 
25 
79 



TABLE XIII 

Four Detail Drawing 

Distribution of the Work of One Division of Grade J/.a According 
to Test Groups, Mental and Chronological Age 













Group 










Chrono- 
logical age 




I 




II 


III 


IX 




Mental Age 






XII 


XI 


X 


XII 


XI 


X 


XII 


XI 


X 


XII 


XI 


X 


IV 


13 


















1 
3 
2 










12 






1 






1 
1 




2 






1 

4 
1 




11 




2 
1 
. . . : . 












10.. 


1 


1 






2 




2 
1 




1 


1 


9. . 






1 











2 


















Total 


1 


3 
6 






3 


2 


2 


9 




I 


6 


1 












3 


13 




8 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 



107 



CO 

6 



s- 



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o 






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cccrding to Age, 

A 



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1— 1 

g 

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BS 

O 


OVER-AGE 
YEARS 


>o 


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ec 






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• • • eo —i 


:- 




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a 
















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P< 

P 

o 

« 


OVER-AGE 
YEARS 


iO 




• Y— 1 *— 1 CM T— 1 




■* 


- * — i 














co ; 






M 










<m \ ! 




r-H X= *~* 










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fa 


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Group II 


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as •»! 

c 


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:- 

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T— . 




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5 




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■ — « — « 








■ 

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108 



State Bo \ri> of Oilab iiks 



^3 



o 



> 
i— i 

X 

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p 

o 
O 



a. 
P 
o 
a 

a 



a. 

p 

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o> a « bc 

fag ► cs 



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rt 



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<: « 

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— i - ii: ic is « m n 



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fa 



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< 



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*-< — i C<1 '-£> i« 



V 






N t5 O ■* rt M « O » M N 



J Performance Xorms for Tiiirtkkn Tests 



109 



X 



cs 



o 

i— i 



5 

© 

•<s> 
O 

S3 

© 



CO 

© 



-to 

e 

© 

© 

©* 

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a 

a 



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a 
f as 



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•CO-^OQCOCO.— I'!?-"* 1 -* 

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-a 
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a 
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p 


















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• • .-> if; cm t— cm cm • 







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a 
a 
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a 

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ss 

a 
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:::::::::::: 








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CM 


| : :::::: 


1—1 

ft. 

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a 
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Poor 


■ — ■<* UO CM CM CM lO • (M -H • 












--i.'t-^OI.iO 




-3 
§ 






% 


























































i - r . - — ~r?i — — - xn<o 



1 LO 



State Board of Chari! ees 



o 



< 



o 

o 



a. 

o 

a: 
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a o a-, i - o — 
s i n — • — • — ■ 



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fee £ a-a 



lO iC 1/D I- US '-^ "O O -f CO -M 



p 
o 

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N » « '"5 SS CC Zi « '/J S T. i 

<M 'X> go i~ -*> :o io -f — < 







: : : 
















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O 






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: : : 















c 
o 

Pi 






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o 

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o 



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o 
P-, 



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co 


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VV 


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■ iO ^ W*f CM -M - - 































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t-.C0"5'CC0M'-iO3>Xr-a 



Performance Xoums for. Thirteen Tests 



111 



TABLE XVI 
Fori; Detail Drawing 

Summary of Tables XIV and XV 





Total 




number 


Age 


James 
Kemble 




School 




cases 


17 




16 


8 


15 


28 


14 


65 


13 


89 


12 


73 


11 


48 


10 


63 


9 


58 


8 


40 


7 


19 


G 

i 


1 



Total 
number 
institu- 
tional 
oases 



1 

2 

4 

10 

20 

24 

16 

21 

10 

2 

6 



Per cent. 
James 

Kemble 

School 

cases 


Per cent. 

institu- 
tional 
cases 

success- 


Number 
overage 

James 
Kemble 

School 


Number 
overage 
institu- 
tional 


Per cent 
overage 

James 
Kemble 

School 


success- 


ful 




cases 




ful 


cases 




cases 


50 




2 


1 


100 


50 


50 


8 


2 


100 


82 


75 


8 


3 


29 


74 


100 


11 


5 


17 


56 


60 


13 


11 


15 


66 


75 


8 


12 


11 


63 


38 


3 


6 


6 


52 


29 


1 


12 


2 


40 


10 




2 




30 










26 











Per cent. 
overage 
institu- 
tional 
cases 



100 
100 
75 
50 
55 
50 
38 
57 
20 



112 State Hoard ok Charities 

cjiattkr ix 

Turkic Detail Djjawiao Test 

Material. — This test is similar to that described in Chapter 
VI II but is for- younger children. The story used for illustra- 
tion is 

WHY ROVER RAX AWAY* 

One morning; Rover was very hune;rv indeed. lie had been 
going from place to place with his master, and now it was two 
long days since he had eaten a good dinner. His master was a 
poor tinker who traveled about the country and never stayed long 
in one place. Rover would have liked this if his master had been, 
kind to him, but the dog was used only to blows and kicks. 

Rover was a rough, shaggy dog and his tail curled down under 
him in a way that showed he had been ill-treated. But he had 
good, faithful, brown eyes, and the drooping tail was always ready 
to wag at a kind word. 

The tinker's breakfast was on the table. How good it smelt I 
Rover looked at it with longing eyes. 

" Please give me a bit, master," said Rover. " I am so 
hungry ! " The tinker did not seem to hear. At last he said 
roughly, " Be still, Rover ! " 

Rover waited patiently for a few minutes, but his master had 
no thought of feeding him. At last Rover put out his long red 
tongue and swept the meat and bread into his mouth. 

Then the angry tinker struck the poor dog and spoke sharply 
to him. An hour later Rover had ran away. 

ROVER'S NEW HOME 

It was a hot day in summer, and Rover stopped to drink some 
water out of a mud puddle. How hungry and thirsty he was ! 
He ran on for miles and miles. At last he saw a cottage with 
smoke coming out of the chimney. High hills were around it, 
and a thick dark wood was not far away. On the doorstep were 
tv:o little children. lT7ie?i they saw the dog they shouted with 
delight. ' rr 

"If is Rover!" cried Sandy. "It is Tommy Tinker's dog. 
Where have yovL come from, old fellow, and where is youi 
master? " 



* Fronri the story " Rover and his friends " in " Friends and their Helpers " by Sarah J. Eddy. 



Perform an ok Xor.ms for Tiiiktekn Tksts 113 

It was plain that Rover was no stranger to thorn. lie had been 
there with his master only a week before, ami while Tinker Tom 
was mending the kettle, the children and the dog had made friends 
The mother had given him a bone, and though some persons may 
forget a kindness, a dog never does. Eover eonld not answer 
Sandy's question. All he could do was to wag his tail faster 
than ever. The little girl put her arm about his shaggy neck. 

"Poor doggie!" she said. " You shall have some of my 
supper." 

The italicised lines in the above story were used as the basis of 
^this three detail drawing test. The whole story was read to the 
children, the quotation was written 011 the blackboard and the 
children were told to draw the three principal details in the 
quotation. The directions and material were similar to those in 
the four detail drawing test and for the most part the subjects were 
the same. The time between the two tests was approximately 
six months, so that the 8-A children had been graduated, and all 
the others promoted, if deserving, from the lower to the higher 
divisions of each grade, or from the A division of one grade to 
the B division of the next higher grade. The only division that 
had not taken part in the first test was the 2-B. 

The three details that the children were required to represent 
are the two children, i. e., the boy and the girl, and the dog. 
The papers were classified in six groups as follows : 

(h'onjj Contains the drawings that shoiv 

I. Three details, and illustrate the quotation. 
IT. Three details, but do not illustrate the quotation. 
III. Onlv the two children-. 
VI. One child mid the dog. 
V. Only one of the required details. 
VI. Xone of the required details. 

The drawings that fall in group I are considered the successful 
oik -. The other groups are given to show the entire distribution 
of the paper 

Since the tost was conducted according to grades^ the papers 
were first classified by grades to find ouf if the curve of si 
cesses would correspond i<> thad in the four detai] test. A- <li<>wn 



114 State Boaed of Chaeities 

in Table 1, the curve of successes is very irregular from the eighth 
grade through the special classes. This irregularity is caused by 

the difference in the number and composition of each grade For 
instance, in some of the grades there is a large number of over-ag 
retarded children, while other grades are comparatively free from 
them. Such a difference will cause a lower grade free from such 
children to make a better showing than a higher grade which 
contains them. Table I also shows that the 3-A children make a 
better showing than those in any of the higher grades. This is 
probably due to the fact that the test is too easy for the older 
children and they are more likely to be careless and fail to bring 
out the required details. 

The judgment used by the children was studied by grades, as 
to proportion, choice of colors and neatness, and it was found from 
grade eight through the lowest special classes that the number of 
excellent, good and fair papers decreases as the number of poor 
and very poor increases. Less difficulty was experienced in 
selecting colors and in making neat representations than in getting 
proportions. Some children who gave a good interpretation of the 
quotation had a dog as large as an elephant in proportion to the 
children, or vice versa. 

The irregularity in the curve of successes when classified by 
grades led to the classification by ages in Table II. Here the 
curve is more regular from the age of 13 to 7 years. The 1G and 
15 year old children make a poorer showing than all other ages, 
but this is to be expected because of the small number at these ages 
and because the 10 and 15 year old children found in the grammar 
grades are usually the children who have always done poor work. 
The per cent, successful of the 14 and 9 year children is about 
the same. Again at 14 the number successful is small, but some 
other factor may cause this drop. For the most part the 14 year 
old children that caused the drop in the per cent, successful are 
the same children, who at the age of 13, caused a similar drop 
in the four detail drawing test. In studying the results of that 
test it was found that the number of feeble-minded, border-line 
and over-age children is greater at this age than at any other, 
which in all probability affects the results of the test. 

Seventy-four per cent, of the 8 year old children are successful, 
which is an indication that as a special age test the three detail 






Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 115 

drawing belongs at the 8 year level. Feeble-minded subjects with 
a mental age of eight years can do this test. 

Because the age limit of this test is so low, it was not considered 
necessarv to work out the results in detail as was done in tin* first 
drawing test, but from general observations the drawings show 
many of the same characteristics. For instance, like the horse in 
the first test, the dog is represented in many varieties. The most 
common ones resemble ducks, horses, cats, rabbits, squirrels, 
hippos, mules and many varieties that have not been named. 

The manner of expressing the children in this test is similar 
to the expression of the driver in the first test. The older 
children draw profiles while the younger ones draw more full 
faces and outlines. 

It was only an occasional paper that failed to show more details 
than were required. The test calls for only three details, but the 
quotation places the children on the doorstep and this is where 
more than 80 per cent of the subjects placed them. Some had a 
whole porch with porch furniture, while others simply showed 
the doorway. Many varieties of trees with the usual birds' nests 
and birds in them surround the house and the swing that is ever 
present where there are children, hangs from the trees. Some 
thoughtful children placed the ash can beside the house and others 
placed a barrel to catch the rain water. 

Although the details are determined for subjects in both draw- 
ing tests, they have enough free play to show much that is in their 
minds. Bright children produce logical drawings and make their 
accessory details lit in with the required details, and it is only 
the poorer papers that fail to show considerable freedom of expres- 
sion. In the presentation of the test the quotation might have 
been placed on the board and children told to illustrate it by a 
drawing, without any further introduction; but the whole story 
was read to get the attention of every child. In no case 1 was ;i 
paper discarded because the (nets of the story other than those in 
the quotation were not used, but it was remarkable bow many of 
the children gave a complete story in the picture. One child 
had the drawing in two parts. To tin 1 right of the paper was 
shown the tinker enting his supper with the dog beside him, look 
ing up in such a manner as to show thai he was very hungry. To 



110 



Sta FTS BOAKD ok ClIAIMl IKS 



the loft <oi ttoe paper were two <-lii 1 <1 1 <m i on tbc daeistep with hands 
extended as if to welcome the dog that was commg op the path. 

One of the eliildren had a l)owl in hand as if to feed the dog as 
soon as he reaeked the house. In another drawing a hoy drew his 
dog to correspond exactly to the dog doscrihed in the story. Many 
give the idea that the dog is dejected hy showing his tail curl. 
down, and the pleasure of the two children to me the dog is shown 
by their manner of greeting him. 

These drawing tests may he used as supplemental to languag" 
and also to writing, and since they are independent of formal 
training they constitute tests of native ability. 



TABLE I 

Three Detail Brawikfg 

Distribution of Drawings According to Grades and Ted Groups 



Grades 



8A 

8B 

7A 

7B 

6A 

6B 

5A 

5B 

4A 

4B 

3A 

3B 

2A 

2B 

Spec. (1) . . 
Spec. (2) . 
Spec. (3) . 

Total . 



16 
20 
56 
35 
27 
47 
31 
53 
51 
48 
21 
55 
27 
18 
7 
9 



521 



II 



1 

8 

: 8 

4 
8 
1 
3 
2 

35 



Groups 



III 



1 
1 
2 
2 
2 



4 
3 
3 
2 
2 
3 

25 



IV 



2 
4 
2 



2 

3 
1 



15 



V 



1 
2. 



4 

i 

O 

12 



VI 



To!al 



18 
25 
60 
36 
33 
53 
34 
55 
53 
56 
21 
72 
34 
30 
10 
14 



617 



Performance Norms foe Thirteen Tests 



117 



TABLE II 

Three Detail Bxa"WXN"G 

Distribution, of Papers According to Ag&s and Test Croups 





Ages 


Groups 


Total 


Per rent. 




I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


success- 
ful 


17 


1 
5 
18 
51 
92 
90 
80 
65 
63 
37 
19 


5 
3 

1 
1 

10 
5 
3 

7 


2 
5 
6 

4 

6 
2 


2 
5 
3 
2 

3 


2 

1 
1 
1 
3 

3 

1 


1 
1 

1 

3 
3 


1 

7 
25 
1)1 
100 
99 
92 
76 
75 
50 
31 


100 


16 


71.4 


15 


72.6 


14 


83 . 6 


13 


92 


12 


90.9 


11 


86.9 


10 


85.5 


9 


84 


8 


74 


7.. 


61.2 




Total 






521 


35 


25 


15 


12 


9 


617 


84.4 









CHAPTER X 

Bala ncb N ic k el * 

Description of Test and Material. — The need of performance 
tests for young children caused the Bureau to experiment with 
balancing a nickel. A new coin balances too easily and a very old 
one that is worn off on the edge will not balance at all. Therefore 
a moderately used coin is best to use, and if this test should 
become standard it would be necessary to have the coins to be 
used tested as to the flatness of their edges. It is probable that 
children will take more pleasure in trying to balance a real nickel 
than a metal disk of like size. A level table is necessarv and a 
stop w^atch is used for timing the reaction. 

Method of Presentation. — E. says to S. " Can you do this? 5 
and then balances the nickel before him. After the nickel is in 
balance if the hand is removed as though one had done a fine 
trick, the child is much pleased and is eager to take his turn. It 
so happens that children are often more skillful than adults in 
getting the coin to balance, and the little triumph they enjoy if 
they succeed as promptly or a little more promptly than E. 
is exhilarating, and makes them keen to try other tests. After 
S. succeeds, E. knocks down the coin so that it twirls and tells 
S. to repeat the performance. If S. is allowed to pick up the 
coin as it stands in balance he will have an unfair advantage for 
his second trial, for the coins balance best in certain positions, 
as with Miss Liberty standing on her head. The time is recorded 
in each trial and whether one or both hands are used. 

Typical Reactions. — A child with a proper understanding of 
the act balances the coin very daintily between fingers that en- 
courage it to stand erect but do not press hard on it. He lets the 
coin roll between his fingers if it seems inclined to roll until it 
gets in poise. With a sharp eye he watches the angle to see if the 
coin is erect, and when it is in poise and is erect he deftly removes 
the guiding fingers. A child with less judgment presses the 
coin down hard on the table as if to make a groove for it to stand 
m, Another child holds the coin too hard in his hands and thus 
cannot remove his fingers without disturbing the equilibrium. 



* This and the following tests were worked out by Investigator Jessie Louise Horriek, M. D.. 
in the Dunkirk public schools. 

[118] 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 119 

The performance that is significant of mental or eve defect is that 
in which S. never gets the coin perfectly upright and vet seem- 
ingly expects it to balance. Again and again he starts to take 
away his hand and the coin tumbles to the table. At early ages 
S. is inclined to use both hands, but this is not considered 
significant. When the fingers arc larger the average child finds 
those of one hand quite sufficient to guide the coin into equilibrium. 

Method of scoring. — For success & must balance the coin 
twice, for the first balance may have been partly accidental. 1 1 
often happens that the second effort takes longer than the first and 
thus the patience is tested. A few children give up after trying 
a minute or more. 

Tabulation. — Tables I and II show for the public school and 
institution children at each age, the average time, number suc- 
cessful and number who failed and the use of one or both hands 
at each of two trials. Table I shows that the time is likelv to be 
variable, which is probably due to the small number at each age, 
for Table II, which contains a much larger number at each age, 
shows a decrease in time from 6 s to 12 years. However, the time 
of balancing is due to physical as well as mental control and is 
not a factor that can be standardized to advantage; it should not be 
counted against S. although if he makes good time it proves him 
to be a more skilful balancer than others. It is evident from bojth 
tables that with a coin that can be balanced, everyone above the age 
of six years should be expected to succeed, the time being less 
important than the method. After the age of seven comparatively 
few subjects use both hands. 

Value of the Test. — The act of balancing requires a delicate 
use of motor coordination, and judgment and discrimination 
based on muscular and visual sense. The test, interests everj 
child, even the youngest, is portable, and can be applied anywhere 
where there is a level surface. The failure of any child over six 
years old is significant of an unusual lack either of persistence 
or of judgment. 



120 



State Board of Cixaeities 



TABLE I 
Bata.xck Xk imex 

Public School Children. Average Time, Number Successful, 

Number Failed, Hands Used, at Each Age for Two Trials 







Fihst Trial 








Second Trial 






Age 








HANDS USED 








HAMrt DBBD 




Num- 
ber suc- 


Num- 
ber 






Num- 
ber suc- 


Num- 
ber 








Avrrare 
t mi 






Average 
time 










cessful 


failed 


1 


2 


7 


cessful 


failed 


1 


2 


? 


6 


27.15 


18 


2 


15 


4 


1 


34.2 


15 


5 


12 


7 


1 


7 


59 


17 


3 


12 


7 


1 


23.8 


17 


3 


11 


6 


3 


8 


39.8 


17 


3 


16 


1 


3 


34 . 25 


15 


5 


14 


1 





9 


72.83 


14 


6 


14 




6 


49.36 


13 


7 


12 


1 


7 


10 


50.9 


20 




19 


1 




36 


20 




17 


3 




11 


20.7 
41.15 


10 
32 


1 


10 
32 






11.9 
22.62 


10 
32 


1 


10 

30 


2 




12 


1 




1 




11.7 
23 . 75 


13 
4 




13 
3 






5.61 
4 


13 

4 




13 
3 


1 




14 


1 




. . • • 



TABLE II 

Balance IsTickel 

Institution Children. Average Time, Number Successful, Num- 
ber Failed, Hands Used, at Each Age for Two Trials 







Eirst Trial 








Second Trial 






Mental 








HANDS USED 








H VXDS T78ED 


Age 


Average 
time 


Num- 
ber suc- 


Num- 
ber 






Average 
time 


Num- 
ber suc- 


Num- 
ber 




















cessful 


failed 


1 


2 


? 


cessful 


failed 


1 


2 


7 


VI 


62 


81 


10 


49 


29 


13 


45.6 


69 


6 


40 


25 


10 


VII 


42.1 


99 


5 


82 


15 


7 


38.2 


80 


8 


61 


13 


14 


VIII 


32.1 


112 


12 


95 


14 


15 


28 


80 


14 


71 


12 


11 


IX 


43.6 


118 


8 


108 


11 


7 


28.2 


80 


6 


68 


12 


6 


X 


32 


124 


8 


90 


5 


37 


23.5 


95 


4 


64 


1 


34 


XI 


23.1 


73 


4 


53 


8 


16 


21.7 


45 


2 


31 


1 


15 


XII 


15.7 


33 


1 


24 


1 


9 


25.1 


19 




10 


1 


8 



CHAPTER XI 
Peg Board 

Description of Test and Material. — The idea of using the 
kindergarten peg board as a motor coordination test was gained 
from the Neurological Institute psychologists. The peg board is 
of wood, six inches square, % of an inch thick, with a square of 
100 holes bored in it, ten in a row, % inch apart,- the holes being 
% of an inch in diameter and a quarter- of an inch deep. One 
cylindrical wooden peg is used, 11/16 of an inch long and of a 
size to fit the hole. The end of the peg is whittled a little toward 
a point so that it will enter the hole without resistance, for the 
speed is materially lowered by friction in the insertion of the peg. 
For perfectly standard work a metal board and stylus made to 
exact proportions would be desirable. However an examiner be- 
comes familiar with his own tools and can easily detect individual 
dirr'erenees in the persons he examines. A stop watch is used to 
time the reaction. 

Method of jyresentation and scoring — E. lays the board in 
sight, picks up the peg and says, " I want you to stick this peg in 
every hole on the board and see how fast you can do it. Stick the 
peg to the bottom of the hole like this." E. goes half way across 
the first row by way of illustration, then repeats: " Now stick 
the peg in every hole as fast as you can." The stop watch is 
started when S. brings the peg to the first hole and stopped when 
he reaches the bottom of the last hole or gives up. When S. is 
working, E. is very busy for he must take a reading of the time 
at the end of each line and also watch for holes and lines skipped. 

The reading is written as follows: 

10 21 33 44 5G 6 15 25 31 42 

The time for each line is obtained by subtracting each reading 
from the one next to the right and is written 

11 + 12 + 11 + 12 + 10+9 + 10+9+8 = 102" 

If S. skips a line B. drops in a V in place of a reading, and if 

he skips a hole a dot is placed over the reading for thai Line. Tf S. 

chooses the best method of work he alternates the linos ami E. 

indicates this dt the symbol ^ = - ) . Cf S. begins at th' 1 loft of 



each line E. records ^+-, but if S. improves his method while 
at work E. records *± =d. If ff. goes around tfie edge of the board 

[1211 



]-22 State Board of Charities 

and then works inward E, can do no more than take the total time, 
and watch for holes skipped. If IS. jumps about the board the 

scoring cannot be kept. 

Typical reactions. — Only erratic subjects or those with poor 
judgment, as very young children, fail to see the advantage of 
working by rows. Some subjects develop a beautiful rhythm in 
their work and this constitutes the best kind of a performance for 
it indicates muscular control and perfect coordination. A time 
schedule that reads 8+7+8+7+8+7 + 8+7 + 7+6 does not 
indicate that S. was variable, but that the readings of the watch 
could be taken only to seconds and not to half seconds, whereas 
S. probably approximated a score of 7%+^%+^%+^%' It 1S 
natural for persons to speed up a little when they see the end in 
sight, and it is not nnusnal for some to begin a little faster than 
they can hold out. Those who bungle around the edge of the 
hole, so that the peg hits the edge instead of sinking at once into 
the opening seem to lack visual skill or at least a complete 
coordination between eye and hand, and an eye defect may be 
indicated. 

Tabulation. — Individual differences in reaction are verv con- 
spicuous in the peg board test. Table I gives the average time of 
the public school children tested at each age, the method used and 
the errors. It appears from Table I that this can be considered a 
9-vear test if done in 65" bv the alternate method without error. 
A child of 8 does well and a child of 7 or 6 verv well if he selects 
for himself the alternate method. Table II gives a classification 
of the work of the institution children similar to that given in 
Table I for the public school children, except that the ages in 
Table II are mental. As in Table I, there is a steady decrease in 
the time from the age of 6 upwards except at the age of 9, where 
the time is greater than at 8 years, and the alternate method seems 
to predominate from the age of 9. Comparatively few errors are 
made. Occasionally S. will skip or repeat a line but this is not 
common from the a<re of 9 vears. 

Performance at various ages. — There are records for 13 6-year- 
old school children. The first row was pegged in 6" once, in 7' 
once, in 8" nine times, in 9" once and in 10" once. The child 
who began in 6" and the one who began in 7" began faster than 



oooooooooo 



o o 



O 



oooooooooo 
oooooooooo 



o o o o o 



o o o 



o o 



o 



o o 



oooooooooo 

oooooooooo 
oooooooooo 



Kindergarten Peg Board. 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 123 

they could hold out. The child who hegan iu 9" skipped three 
rows, and 9" was his average per row. The child who hegan at 
10" improved after two rows and pegged all ten rows without 
error in 1' 15", which is good time. 

The range at age 6 is from a row done in 5" to one done in 12". 
The hest record for steady, even work was by a child who tapped 
four consecutive rows (but skipped 2 rows en route) in 10" each. 
The average time per row at this age is 9". 

At the age of 7 there are 15 records. The time for the first 
row is, 1 at 6", 1 at 7", 3 at 8", 4 at 9", 5 at 10", and 1 at 11". 
The median is 9", the average 8.8". The most even work was 
done by a child who pegged seven rows in 10" each. Another 
pegged four rows in 11" each, 4 rows in 10" each, and 2 in 12" 
each. The quickest record has four rows tapped in 7' each, the 
next quickest shows no evenness of tapping. A slow record has 
five rows tapped in 10" each. The range of time is from (>" to 
16". As compared with six year olds, the seven-year-olds have 
more 10-row records, more evenness of tapping and a little more 
speed. 

At 8 years old the children profit by experience, or are less 
fatigued, for the last row is done on the average in 1" less than 
the first row. This difference is not noticeable at the earlier ages. 
The second best record for time at 8 years, 68", is by far the best 
in rhythm for eight rows were done in 7" each, six of these rows 
being consecutive. The other two rows were done in 6". Another 
rhythmical record consists of five 8" rows and five 9" rows. Of 
1 V children with records, three others besides those above men- 
tioned tapped three consecutive rows at the same rate, and nine 
tapped two consecutive rows at the same rate. The best record 67' 
had a time-row range of 6" to 10". The range for all was 5" to 
L2". Of 18 children one did the first row in <i", 4 in 7", 6 in 8", 
4 in 9". 2 in 10", and 1 in 11". The median is 8", average 7.8", 
oi one second better than that of the 7-year-olds. 

The 9-year-olds, with 17 records, L5 of which are complete, 
have a range from I" to 1 I", as compared with a range of ■<" to 
12" ai 8 years. Time \^y the first row was 1 al 5", 6 al ,# >". 1 at 
7". 5 a1 8", 1 at 9", 2 at lo" and 1 at 11"; average 8". The 
average time for 10 rows was «'>.:>". The last row was done on an 



124 State Boabd of Chabities 

average i.G" quicker than the tirst row. The besl reeord was done 
in 5&", with 5 rows in ~>" each, four of feheni consoriil ivc. The 

next best record, ">7" h;i<l. four consecutive rows done in 5", live 
rows in 6" each, of which four rows were consecutive, and me 

iow iu 7". A record of 6Q" has 8 cows done in (J" each, of which 
7 we-ce coaseeutive. The slowest reeord V 22" 1ms ."> rows done in 
7" each, three 1 of which axe consecutive. Of the others, 7 did 2 
rows of 5" consecutively, 1 did 3 rows at &", 2 did 3 rows in 7" 
consecutively, and 2 did 2 consecutive rows in 8" (Mich. 

For the age of 10 years there are 17 complete 1 records. The 
range is from 4" to 13" per row, hut. there are only two rows 
which took more than 9". For first row time there is I at 4", 5 
at 5", 5 at 0", 2 at 7", 3 at 8", 1 at 1&". The median is 0"; the 
average time per row for 10 rows, 0.2". The average improvement 
in the last row over the first row is ^", which shows that children 
of this aue can more nearly summon their full ability at first. Of 
the 17 children, 2 have a range of 1/'' iu time per row, a range 
of 2", 4 a range of 3", 4 a range of 4" and 1 a range of 7". For 
the best live whose total time ranges from 40" to 56", three have 
a range of 2", and two have a range of one. That is. those with 
the least variation in time stand at the head of the list for their 
speed. 

At 11 years there are 10 records, 7 of which are complete. The 
range of .time per line is from 5" to 10". Time for tirst line is 
2 at 5", 1 at 6", 2 at 7" and 2 at 8". The average time per row 
is 6.4", the median 7". The average improvement in the last row 
over the first nearly 1". For individual range 3 have a range of 
2", three a. range of 3" and 1 a range of 5". The range for the 
best five n 2" to 3". The 11-year records are not so good as the 
10-year records in average time or rhythm. 

At 12 years there are 30 records, with 27 complete. The range 
is from 4" to 10", which is better than the 11 year records, and 
slightly better than the 10-year records. For hrst-line time, 2 
began at 4", 3 at 5", 5 at 6", 9 at 7", 9 at 8", 1 at 9", 1 at 10". 
The median is 7". The average time per line 6.2". The average 
improvement of the last row T over the first 1". The individual 
range is: 2 with a. range of 1", 9 with a range of 2", 10 with a 
range of 3", 8 with a range of 4" ami 1 with a range of 5". The 
range for the best five is from 2" to 4". About 5 rows were 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests l-"> 

done at the same time, either 5" or 6", but usually only 2 or 3 

consecutive rows. The 12-year-olds arc not much better than the 
9-year-olds. 

For 13-year-olds there are 10 records, with a range of from 
4" to 9". which is better than at any other age. For first-line 
time, 1 began at 5", 8 at 6", 2 at 7", 3 at 8", 1 at 9". The median 
is 7". The average time per line 6". The average improvement 
of the last line over the first 1". For individual ranee 4 have a 
range of 2", 6 a range of 3" and 3 a range of 4". For the best 
five the total time runs from 55" to 1 pinute. The range is from 
2" to 4". The best one has 7 rows tapped in 5" each, 5 of which. 
were consecutive, the second best, 5 rows tapped in 6" each, with 
2 consecutive, the third best 4- rows tapped in 5" each, with 
2 consecutive, the fourth best, 5 rows tapped in 5" each, with 3 
consecutive. 

For 14-year-olds there are 3 records. Two began with 8" and 
one with 6". The last row is 1" quicker than the first. The besl 
record is for 54", range of 2", with 5 rows tapped in 6", 4 con- 
secutive. The second record is 00" with a range of 6" and 6 rows 
tapped in 7", o consecutive. The poorest, record took 70" with a 
range of four and so little rhythm, that no two consecutive rows 
are tapped in the same time. 

Value of the lest. — The ability to put the peg in the holes of 
the board in a. limited time is not entirely a physical lest. Besides 
motor coordination it shows a firmness in limiting activity in the 
right direction and perseverance, characteristics which are notice- 
ably lacking in the feeble-minded. The principle of this lest is 
the same as that in the motor coordination test described in 
bulletin Y "Eugenics and Social Welfare;" Stale Board of 
Charities, but is more satisfactory for young subjects. 



126 



State Board of < !harities 



TABLE I 

Peg Ho a in > 

Public School Children. Average Time, Method and Correctness 

of work at Each Age 





Average 

time 
seconds 


Method 






Correctness 






Are 


Alternate 


Single 


Mixed 


? 


No error 
recorded 


SKIPPED 




Holes 


Lines 


Re- 
peated 


6 


92.35 

88.7 

78.15 

65 . 45 

62.5 

64.9 

62.91 

60.1 

67 


3 

4 

8 

15 

13 

5 

26 

7 

3 


12 

9 
6 
2 
3 

2 


5 

7 
6 
3 
4 

5 
3 
5 
1 


2 
1 


10 
15 
18 
15 
19 
10 
30 
13 
4 


2 

i 

2 
1 


5 

4 

1 
•> 

' 3 


3 


7 


1 


8 




9 


1 


10. 




11. 




12 




13 




14 









TABLE II 

Peg Board 

Institution Children. Average Time, Method and Correctness of 

Work at Each Age 





Average 
time 

secon is 


Method 


Correctness 


Mental Age 


Alternate 


Single 


Mixed 


? 


No 
error re- 
corded 


skipped 






Holes 


Lines 


Re- 
peated 


VI 


94.4 

83.5 

67 

70.5 

64.9 

62.5 

62.5 


32 
45 
64 
67 
69 
44 
23 


41 
57 
41 
35 
50 
24 
11 


22 
26 
20 
25 
24 
14 
2 


5 
3 
3 
4 
3 


72 
102 
115 
125 
141 
82 
3(5 


3 
1 


21 

22 

5 

6 

5 


7 


VII 


4 


VIII 




IX 




X. . . 




XI 

XII 





CHAPTER XII 

To WEB 

The tower test is one planned by the Bureau to use with young 
children, and is in three sections, the building of the tower, rais- 
ing it from the floor to the table, and packing it together in the 
smallest possible compass. 

Material. — A nest of boxes such as is sold at ten-cent stores. 
The outer box is 3^4 inches or S 1 /^ inches square, and there are 
seven or eight boxes diminishing in size until the smallest is li 1 ■_. 
inches tall and slightly less than an inch square. Each box except 
the smallest has one side left open. The boxes are covered with 
brightly colored pictures which please the children. Moreover 
the toy is of a kind familiar to most all children and so raises no 
fear in them. To understand the directions is the main feature of 
the test, so that previous experience with the boxes in a nursery 
is not thought to be of any special advantage to a child. These 
boxes are made abroad and the European war proved very detri- 
mental to the standardization of the test bv the Bureau, for while 
the first measurements of orphan asylum children were made with 
what was considered an ideal set of boxes, when an adult happened 
to crush one of them with her foot, it was found absolutely impos- 
sible to duplicate the set, and first a more flimsy set was used, 
and later a set that was stronger than the original, and hence 
easier to balance. Hence the figures are not strictly comparable, 
although in the building and nesting of the boxes small differences 
of size would make little difference. But the balancing test is 
highly dependent on the fineness of make of the boxes, and if 
this part of the test is to be much used, it is desirable that stand- 
ard boxes be made in thin metal with bright lithographs pasted 
over them. 

Method of Presentation. — When S. comes into the presence of 
E. the boxes are scattered on the floor within reach of K. S. is 
invited at once to sit down on the rug which is provided. " Now," 
says E., " build me the tallest tower you can with these blocks." 
Very youne children do not know the word tower and E. uses 
another word as " building- " or " thing/' and holds his hand ou1 

if to show how very high it must he. The original set of blocks 
had the advantage that they were a trifle longer than square, 

[1271 



I 28 St \ ii. Boabd of ( Ihabities 

thai to place them with the open Bide down was uo1 only ;i means 
of making the lower look right, but of getting the greatest po 
3ible height in the structure. The flimsy set of boxes had this 
advantage, bul the Largest of the bettor built boxes was prac- 
tically square in three dimension-. When standard boxes are 
made it is an advantage to have the height a little in excess of the 
length or breadth. The time occupied by S. in building the tower 
is recorded, as well as his success or failure. Jf it is the talli 
possible, he lias succeeded, even though he has not set the blocks 
neatly one on the other. Before beginning the second part of the 
test E. centers the tower so that it is in perfect symmetry on the 
floor. Then he says to S. : "Now raise the tower and place it 
on the table without spilling it." S. is still sitting on the floor 
when the direction is given. The table is the one in front of E. 
and is so near to the place on the floor where the tower is, that 
by rising in the direction of tire table little or no walking is neces- 
sary. S. is left entirelv free to choose his own method of carrying 
out the task, and this gives admirable opportunity for the study 
of individual differences. Besides, S. is so deeply interested in 
his stunt that he is quite unmindful of the critical eye of E. lie 
exhibits himself quite unconsciously to study, both as to his ability 
to plan and execute,, as to bis motor co-ordination, interest nnd 
the way he accepts a failure or a success. If S. spills his tower 
then one block (the smallest one) is removed, and he is cheerfully 
told to try again. If he spills again one more block is removed 
for him and so on until he lands the tower on the table without its 
tottering over. If S. is very short he may be told to set the 
tower on a chair instead of the table, but most children who can 
do the test can reach the table. The total tiine^is recorded from 
the time S.'s hand touches the tower to raise until he takes his 
hand from the raised tower, leaving it to stand without support. 
The number of blocks removed is also recorded. That is, it is 
recorded that he succeeded to raise the tower with no blocks off, 
with one off, etc. The third movement requires the blocks on the 
floor again. S. usually likes to try to lower the tower from the 
table to the floor, which is evidently a little easier than raising it. 
When it is down E. scatters the blocks and says: " Xow pack up 
the blocks for me to take away with me. Make the smallest pack- 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 129 

age you can." If S. nests the boxes he succeeds. The time re- 
quired to think out and execute this command is recorded. With 
this test which depends so much upon the interpretation of direc- 
tions, there should be no explanations, but the original order 
should suffice. Only in case the child seems to be deaf or was dis- 
tracted in some way should the order be repeated. 

Typical reactions. — Failure with building the tower is usually 
due to an effort to have two blocks for the base, or to setting the 
blocks hole side up, so that the next blocks slip inside and do not 
contribute to the height of the structure. Laying a block sideways 
with the open side exposed to view is not good workmanship and, 
if the block used is taller than it is wide, which it should be, 
defeats the object. Occasionally a child builds a tall tower which 
is lying prone on its side on the floor. Why they should do this 
when they might have the pleasure of seeing it rise in the air is 
hard to understand. Stupid children sometimes nest when told 
to build and vice versa. 

It is in raising the tower that the greatest play of individuality 
occurs. S. is sitting cross-legged on the floor. Even from this 
position he can raise the tower if he rises slowly and steadily, for 
most children are limber, but there is nothing to prevent him from 
standing first and then picking up the tower with more ease. 
However a sportsmanlike child will raise the tower from the sit- 
ting position. Then he may use one hand or two. If he is con- 
fident in his ability he uses only one hand, but puts on the air of 
a trick artist, and executes the task with some style. When the 
flimsy set of boxes was being used the seventh or top one teetered 
because of a bit of paste which had lodged under the lithographed 
surface. Bright children would recognize this risk at once and 
would turn the block end over end to see which surface was more 
stable. But at best this block was wiggly, and some who steadied 
it with their noses while rising were not to be despised for their 
ingenuity. It adds much to the sport and the sense of exhila ra- 
tion over success if the tower is really difficult to raise. Children 
can do this part of the test younger than they can carry out the 
other directions, and a fine sense of balance Beems to be almost 
an instinct with them. That they have need of it when walking 
on rails and fences, climbing trees, skating, going on stilts Is evi- 

5 



loO S ! \ I E BO •. RD 01 ( IIAKI I IKS 

dent, and the f net that these sports are so dear to them indicates a 
native skill and fondness for balancing acts. Children probably 
do better with this than adults, just as animals are even more 
skillful in maintaining their balance than children. 

The third section of the test, the nesting of the boxes requires 
intelligence, and those who are deficient in this are easily marked. 
The thing to be done is very simple, but the test is really of the 
child's ability to think out the order and plan his procedure rather 
than the work he does with his hands. Children who like to have 
their order repeated and explained, and who look to their elders 
for guidance in every little matter and who cannot plan or act for 
themselves are apt to fail with this part of the test. They under- 
stand the words of the directions but do not make the right plan 
for their fulfillment. Thus many do not perceive the use to be 
made of the hollow blocks as receptacles for those that are smaller. 
Some will start with the largest, but put in the next with open side 
down, so that the cavity is effectually concealed, and then they 
stack the other boxes aronnd. Stupid children make a little flat 
pile of the boxes on the floor and do not know that they have failed. 

Table I gives for the school children at each age the average 
time and success or failure for each of the three divisions of the 
test. It shows that building and packing, which depend upon 
intelligent interpretation of the directions and on good planning 
are ten-year tests, while an eight-year old child ought to be able 
to raise the tower in less than a minute with not more than two 
blocks off. Building time at ten years should be less than thirty- 
three seconds and packing time at the same age less than twenty- 
two seconds. Thus the test does not take much time and gives 
much insight into S. 

Table II gives a classification of the work of the institution 
children similar to that given in Table I for the school children. 
With few exceptions the institution children have a better time 
record for building and packing but require more time raising the 
tower at all ages from six to eleven years. 

Value of the Test. — From this test, the three parts of which 
require less than three minutes to perform S. can be studied from . 
the standpoint of his ability to interp "1 follow directions, his 

precision and mode of attack of a rather delicate task, and his 
determination to succeed. 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 



i 3 I 



TABLE I 

Tower 

Public School Children. Average time, Number Successful, 
Number Failed in Building, Raising and Packing, and Number 
of Boxes Removed for Raising at Each Age 



Aoe 



6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



Build 



Aver- 
age 
time 



67.81 

37.21 

36.05 

35 

32 . 25 

26.77 

25.5 

24.42 

21.75 



NUMBER 



Suc- 
cess- 
ful 



8 

9 
14 
14 
20 

8 
32 
11 

4 



Failed 



12 

11 

6 

6 



Raise 



Pack 



Aver- 
age 
time 



62.37 

70.88 

54.61 

43.2 

55.55 

49 

46.62 

45.27 

33 



NUMBER 



Suc- 
cess- 
ful 



7 

9 
13 
14 
20 

S 
32 
11 

4 



Failed 



BLOCKS OFF 







1 


2 


1 


5 


2 


3 


6 


4 


4 


7 


4 


8 


2 


3 


11 


17 


5 


3 




1 



3 

1 

2 
2 
6 
3 
1 
2 

1 


4 

O 

1 

1 


5 
1 


6 

i 



Aver- 
age 
time 



33.64 

29 

26 . 65 

27 

21 

16.77 

19.75 

17.33 

12.25 



NUMBER 



Suc- 
cess- 
ful 



12 
13 
15 
13 

17 

9 

30 

12 

4 



Fal-d 



8 
7 
5 
7 
3 
1 
2 



132 



State Board of Chabities 



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CHAPTER XIII 
Boat 

Four vears ac;o the Bureau was using as a test ef invention the 
case of the man who wanted to get some corn, a goose and a fox 
somewhere but could not take them all at once and who was afraid 
the goose would eat the corn if left alone with it, and that the 
fox would eat the goose. The day after this problem was presented 
to a ten-year-old boy in the Troy Orphan Asylum he returned 
with a device to test the examiner. With the aid of the institution 
engineer he had cut out of cardboard a boat and three men, one 
large and two small. The problem was to get them all across the 
river in the row boat which would carry only half their joint 
weight. It was realized at once that this test has merit, and it has 
since been used a good deal by the Bureau. It is not adapted for 
use when large numbers are to be tested, because it creates so much 
interest that those who have had it will spread the news of it to 
all their friends, but for individual tests, many of which are made 
for purposes of diagnosis, it is useful and reveals the reasoning 
faculties, or lack of them. 

Material. — Four pieces of cardboard, of a size that can be kept 
in a small envelope. A boat shape is marked 300 lbs. meaning 
that the boat will carry three hundred pounds, a large man, usually 
referred to as " the fat man" marked with his weight, 300 lbs., 
two little men, just of a size, each marked with their weight, 
150 lbs. 

Method of Presentation. — E. clears a place on the table and 
says " this is the Hudson River." S. joyfully assents. E. lays 
out the cardboard figures and says: " These three men want to 
get across the river. There is only one boat, a row boat, and it will 
only hold three hundred pounds without sinking. Now the fat 
man weighs 300 lbs. and each of the little men weighs 150 lbs. 
so that the little men together weigh as much as the fat man. 
How shall they get across the river? There must always be a man 
in the boat to row it, or else it will drift away down stream. The 
boat can make as many trips as necessary, but it musl qo1 be over- 
loaded or the men will drown. Now this can be done. I Be the 
boat and the men and show me how you would gel them across 
the river. Start in now." If for any reason S. cannot understand 
the relation of 300 lbs. and two 150 lbs. the tesl can still be given 

[133] 



134 State Board of Charities 

by saying that the two little men together weigh as much as the 
fat man, and that the boat will carry just that same amount of 
weight and no more. 

S. usually begins to load the men in the bout and to row it aero 
the river and unload it. It is not to be expected that he will fall 
upon the solution without some trials. If he sees his own errors 
and rectifies them so much the better, but if he persists in doing 
something wrong, like overloading the boat, or sending it across 
empty, E. makes protest, as " If you do that you will drown the 
men." Sometimes -S. asks questions, as " Can I let the fat man 
swim over % " The time is recorded and the number of questions 
and protests. 

It is the rule with this test not to let S. fail, but to bring 
enough pressure to bear on him to make him think straight on 
the subject. Just as great pressure is applied to steel to test its 
strength before it is wrought into bridges, so one can tell by the 
large or small amount of pressure necessary to make S. think out 
the problem, about how strong his natural faculty for thinking is. 
This test as it progresses gives E. much insight into the mental 
processes of the persons examined, for he sees the way they make 
errors and the way they try to cover them up or pass them over 
when made. Success is credited if the work is accomplished within 
five minutes without more than two protests. The amount of 
pressure used is always significant. 

At 8 years a child has less than one chance in two of success, 
with an average of two protests and one question. The time should 
not exceed five minutes. 

At 9 years the child has nearly one chance in two to succeed 
in less than five minutes, averages nearly two questions and more 
than one protest. 

At 10 years a child has eleven chances in twenty to succeed in 
less than five minutes with an average of one-half a question, and 
less than one-half a protest. 

At 11 years there are six chances in ten of success, with one 
question and nearly two protests. 

At 12 there are twentv-three chances in thirtv-three to succeed 
with nearly two questions and less than one protest. 

At 13 years there are eight chances in thirteen to succeed with 
an average of less than one question and almost no protests. 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 



1 9 K 

1 ■ >.) 



At 14 there are three out of four chances of success with an 
average of nearly two questions and nearly one protest. 
The average time of those successful is 

Ago Time 

8 2' 45" 

9 2' 19" 

10 1' 32" 

11 V 44" 

12 2' 20" 

13 1" 2.0" 

14 3' 24" 

Those who can do it at all can usually do it in less than three 
minutes. 

Table I classifies the work on the boat test of the children in 
three institutions. It shows that a high per cent of those who try 
from the age of ten years and upwards succeed under pressure. 
The average number of protests at each age ranges from 1 to 3 
and the time of those w T ho succeed is seldom more than three 
minutes. 

Value of the test. — As a special age test, this test can be applied 
with satisfactory results to children of ten years or with a mental 
age of ten. It gives an insight into the subject's ability to over- 
come obstacles and to proceed with a problem in an intelligent 
manner after he has been given a right start. This is done usually 
when he makes a false move and E. protests. 

TABLE I 

Boat Test 

Institution Children. Average Time, Average Protests, Nu?nber 
Successful and Number Failed at Each Age 





Mental Age 


Average TlMB 


A vi rac;e 

1 in! . ats 


rMBBB 




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•cosaful 


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VII 


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.1 



136 State Boaed of Charities 

SUMMARY OF TESTS 

1. Knox Cube Imitation Test. 

(a) Fourth line. 

Success may be expected of normal seven-year-old 
children on the first trial. Normal six-year-old 
children can perform this line when more than one 
trial is allowed. 

(b) Fifth line. 

Success may be expected of normal thirteen-year- 
old children when more than one trial is allowed. 
With only one trial the age at which this line belongs 
has not been determined. 

2. Three Number Cancellation Test. 

Children from the age of seven years can perform this test, 
but when the time is limited to three minutes with from two 
to eight errors success may be expected of normal thirteen- 
year-old children. 

3. Recall of Objects. 

Normal nine-year-old children can remember seven objects 
with one misplaced. 

Normal thirteen-year-old children can remember eight 
objects with none misplaced. 

4. Grouping of Objects. 

Normal children from the age of seven years may be 
expected to group the shoe and hat, the gun and hatchet, and 
the dog with either the chicken or horse. The grouping of 
the cup, car, chair and either the horse or chicken may vary 
at all ages. 

Normal thirteen-year-old children may be expected to 
account for their groupings. Low grade morons and imbeciles 
fail on this part of the test. 

5. Peg Design. 

Success may be expected of normal nine-year-old children. 
High grade morons may perform this test, but require more 
time to learn the design than subjects of corresponding ages. 



Performance Norms for Thirteen Tests 137 

6. Story Reproduction. 

Normal thirteen-year-old children may be expected to give 
sufficient details to show that they have gained the idea of 
the story. Morons fail on this test. 

7. Syllogisms. 

Normal thirteen-year-old children may be expected to form 
the conclusions of three of the five syllogisms. 

8. Drawing Test A. Four Detail Reproduction. 

Success may be expected of normal fourteen-year-old 
children. 

9. Drawing Test B. Three Detail Reproduction. 

The average child found in the second grade or normal 
eight-year-old children can perform this test. 

10. Balance Nickel. 

All normal six-year-old children can balance the nickel 
when two hands are used. Normal children from the age of 
seven years can do it with one hand. 

11. Peg Board. 

Time and method are the determining factors in this test. 
All normal children from the age of six years can do it. 
Ten-year-old children can do it in 65 seconds using the alter- 
nate method. 

12. Tower. 

Build. — Normal ten-year-old children may be expected to 
build the tower in an average time of 28 seconds. 

Raise. — Time and the number of blocks off are the prin- 
cipal elements in this part of the test. A normal ten-year- 
old child may be expected to raise the tower in 58 seconds 
with no more than two blocks off. 

Pack. — A normal nine-yea r-child may be expected to puck 
the blocks in an average time of 22 seconds. 

13. Boat Test. 

A normal ten-year child or a subject with a ton-year 
mentality may bo expeHcd to perform the boat test with not 
more than two protests. 



138 State Board of Charities 

Wiih the exception of the last four tests the working norms 
were obtained from the results of a selected group of public 
school children, all of whom had made the average yearly 

progress from grade to grade. The results of the work of the 
institution group, for the most part do not come up to expecta- 
tion when compared with that of the public school group but 
this is due to the fact that in the former group, the backward 
children tend to lower the averages of those children in the 
institutions whose work is comparable to the normal public 
school children. The results show that in tests involving 
reasoning and prolonged concentration the institution children 
as a group make a poorer showing than the selected groups of 
public school children, while with simple performance tests 
and tests that are quite mechanical the results of the two 
groups are more nearly alike. 

The correlations of the performances of some of the tests 
were worked out and it was found that memory for objects 
and memorv of ideas as tested bv the recall of objects and the 
story reproduction correlated by 0.71 ; that ability to account 
for acts and memory of ideas as tested by the ability to 
account for groupings in the grouping of objects test and the 
story reproduction correlated by 0.68; that reasoning ab 
tested in the ability to account for groupings in the grouping 
of objects test and the syllogisms correlated by 0.50; that 
memory of six moves as tested by the fifth line of the Knox 
cube test and memory as tested by the peg design correlated 
by 0.37. None of these correlations are high, but are suffi- 
cient to show that ability to perform one test is ordinarily 
accompanied by ability to perform the second test with 
■ which the first correlated. For instance, a subject who can 
remember eight objects with none misplaced can remember 
the required number of details of the story reproduction test 
for a thirteen-year performance, and so on, for the other tests 
that correlated. 



Performance Xorms for Thirteen Tests 



139 



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142 State Boabd of Chabities 

REFERENCES 

^Arnold and Kittrc:!^ — Mother Tongue, Book I, New York State edition, 
(Jinn and Company, p. 63. 341pp. 

Baldwin, Bird T. — Standardization. Educational Bi-monthly, Vol. IX, 
June, 1915, pp. 379-387. 

r\ Barnes, Anna K. — Children's Idea of Lady and Gentleman. Barnes' Studi 
in Education. Vol. II, pp. 141-150. 

^Barnes, Earl — A Study of Children's Interests, Studies in Education, Vol. I, 
pp. 203-213. December, 1896. 

£> Barnes, Earl — A Study of Children's Drawings. Pedagogical Seminary, 
1893, Vol. 11, pp. 455-458. 

£>Barnes, Earl — The Art of Little Children. Pedagogical Seminary, Vol. Ill, 
pp.. 302-307. 

& Brown, H. W. — Some Records of the Thoughts and Reasonings of Little 
Children. Pedagogical Seminary, 1893, Vol. II, pp. 358-390. 

Bmner, F. G. — Testing Children for Mental Efficiency, National Education 
Association, 1912, pp. 1110-1118,. 

/pBurtt, H. E. — Factors Which Influence the Arousal *of Primary Visual 
Images. American Journal of Psychology, Vol. XXXII, 
pp. 87-118. 

C? Eddy, Sarah J. — Friends and Helpers, 231 p. D. N. Y. G-inn, no date, 
Story Rover and His Friends, pp. 1-10. 

Kin ox, Howard A., M. D. — A Scale Based on the Work of Ellis Island 
\ Estimating Mental Defect. Journal of the American Medical 

Association, Vol. LXII, March 7, 1914, pp. 741-747. 

Pintner, Rudolph — Standardization of the Knox Cube Test, Psychological 
\ Review, September, 1915, pp. 377-401. 

Simpson, Benjamin R. — Correlation of Mental Abilities. Teachers College, 
v Columbia University, Contributions to Education, No. 53, 122 p. 

State Board of Charities — Eleven Mental Tests Standardized, Eugenics and 
\ Social Welfare Bulletin Nc\. V, 87 p. 

/NStrayer, G«. D. — Use of Tests and Scales of Measurement in the Administra- 
tion of Schools. National Education Association, 1915. 

£> Titchener, E. B. — Lectures on the Experimental Psychology of Thought 
Processes, Review, Science, N. S. Vol. XXXI, pp. 224-226, Feb- 
ruary 11, 1910. 

yWells, F. L.— Principle of Mental Tests. Science N. S. 38 j 221-224, 
August 15, 1913,. 

Whipple, Guy M. — Manual of Mental and Physical Tests, Part I, Simpler 
\ Processes, 365 p.; Part II, Complex processes, 336 p. Baltimore, 

Warwick and York. 



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